Author: Dr. Firdous Aabidah

الوارث

  • Al-Waarith (The Inheritor of all)

This name of Allah came in the Holy Quraan in three places in plural form. The translation of the verses is:

Surah Al-Hijr 23;


(15:23) It is indeed We Who grant life and cause death and it is We who shall be the sole Inheritors of all.15

Exp. note 15:

15. It is to impress this: Your worldly life and all you possess are transitory and temporary, and Allah alone is Eternal. Your end shall come sooner or later, and you shall leave everything behind in this world, which will again become a part of Our treasure.

Surah Al-Anbiyaa verse 89:


(21:89) And We bestowed favour upon Zakariah, when he cried to his Lord: “Lord! Leave me not solitary (without any issue). You are the Best Inheritor.” 

Surah Al-Qasas 58:


(28:58) And how many a town did We destroy whose inhabitants exulted on account of their affluence. These are their dwellings in which very few dwelt after them. Eventually it is We Who inherited them.82
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Exp. note 82:

82. This is the second answer to their excuse. It means to imply this: The worldly wealth and prosperity of which you are so proud and whose probable danger of loss makes you stick to falsehood and turn away from the truth. This was also possessed once by Aad and Thamud and Saba and the people of Lot. Then, did it save them from destruction? After all, a high standard of living is not the only aim in life that man should endeavor to pursue it regardless of every consideration for truth and falsehood, and refuse to accept the right way only because there was a risk of losing it if one did so. Do you have any guarantee that if you persisted in the errors and evils that ruined the prosperous peoples of the past, you would remain safe and never meet the doom that they met?
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In the verse 58 of the Surah Al-Qasas:

Allah Ta’aala reminded the idolaters of Makkah the rich proud nations of the past who were destroyed due to their disbelief! Their dwellings could be seen by the arrogant disbelievers of Makkah. Allah had also provided the idolaters of Makkah lots of blessings but they worshipped false deities and rejected the massage of truth given by Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam. So they were warned of the same end.

So everyone and everything will pass away and perish while Allah shall exist and live forever. Then all the belongings of mankind and Jinn etc. will be left to Allah. Thus Allah is the Inheritor of all!!!

Allah said in surah Maryam verse 40:

(19:40) Ultimately, We shall inherit the earth and whatever is on it; to Us shall they be returned.
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In this verse is a warning for those who got involved in the love and achievements of this world and forgot the purpose for which they came to this world. So they must think deeply about the fact that the world will go away from them and they will pass away empty-handed from this world to the next one and then they will be recompensed according to their faith and deeds that they did here.

Now is our turn. We must remember that we are going to pass away very soon. This entire world belongs to Allah Azza wa Jall. Nothing of the wealth, property and worldly things belong to us in real sense. But whatever we have here will remain here and Allah’s world will be inherited by Allah while we shall be judged for the worldly things. Then the obedient believers shall be admitted to Jannah while the disobedient and unbelievers shall be admitted to Hell.

Surely, Allah All-Mighty is the ultimate Inheritor of everything while we are all mortal and accountable.

الباقي

  • Al-Baaqee (The Everlasting One)

Everything will perish except Allah Azza wa Jall. Allah said in Surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verse 26 and 27 (Its English translation is):

(55:26) All 25 that is on earth will perish,

(55:27) only the Person of your Lord, full of majesty and splendour, will endure. 

(55:28) So which of the wonders of your Lord will you twain – you men and jinn – then deny?26
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Exp. note 25:

25. From here to verse 30, the jinn and the men have been informed of two realities:
First, neither you are immortal nor the provisions that you are enjoying in this world everlasting. Immortal and everlasting is the Being of the High and Supreme God alone Whose greatness this universe testifies, and by Whose grace and kindness you have been favored with these bounties. Now, if someone among you behaves arrogantly, it would be due to his own meanness. If a foolish person assumes haughtiness in his tiny sphere of authority, or becomes god of a few helpless men who fall into his hand, this force would not last long. A godhead that lags for a mere score or two score years in a corner of the earth whose size in this limitless universe is not even equal to a pea seed, and then becomes a legend of the past, is not something of which one may feel proud and arrogant.

The other important truth of which both these creations have been warned is: None of those whom you have set up as deities and removers of hardships and fulfiller of needs, apart from Allah, whether they are angels or prophets or the moon and the sun, or some other creation, can fulfill any of your needs. These helpless creatures and things themselves stand in need of Allah’s help for their needs and requirements. They themselves pray to Him for help. When they are not able to remove their own hardships, how will they remove your hardships? Whatever is happening in this limitless universe, from the earth to the heavens, is happening under the command of One God alone. No one else has any share in His Godhead. No one therefore can influence anyone else’s destiny in any way.

Exp. note 26:

26. Here, as the context itself shows, the word alaa has been used in the sense of excellences and perfections. Whoever of the mortal creatures is involved in vanity and self-arrogance and struts about thinking that his false godhead is everlasting, disavows Lord of the world’s glory and majesty by his conduct, if not by his tongue. His pride and arrogance by itself is a denial of Allah All-Mighty’s greatness and glory. Whatever claim he may make to an excellence by his tongue, or arrogate to himself such an excellence, it is indeed a disavowal of the rank and station of the real possessor of excellences and perfections.
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Allah said in surah Al-Furqaan verse 58 (the English translation is):


(25:58) (O Muhammad), put your trust in Him Who is Ever-
Living, Who will never die, and glorify Him with His praise. He suffices as the Knower of the sins of His servants,
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Allah is the Owner of everything and that of the whole Universe. Allah Ta’aala is the Giver of death and life to everyone. Allah HIMSELF shall live forever. This whole universe is going to end at the ordained time by the Command of Allah All-Mighty. All of the mankind and jinn also will come to an end. But Allah will give us another life in the next world where Judgment shall be passed and then the human beings and the jinns shall remain forever, some in Hell and some in Paradise according to their faith and deeds.

Whatever we do here for this world, will perish and whatever good we do for the Hereafter shall remain with Allah to benefit us forever.

Allah Azza wa Jall said in the surah Al-Nahl (An-Nahl) verse 96 (its English translation is):


(16:96) Whatever you have is bound to pass away and whatever is with Allah will last. And We shall surely grant those who have been patient their reward98 according to the best of what they did.

Exp. notes:

1. The wealth and property of this world will perish and the Hereafter is everlasting. Therefore, your goal must be the Hereafter and you must desire and pray for its blessings.

2. Those who will remain steadfast in the severe trials in this world will get their ranks and rewards in the Hereafter according to their excellent deeds.
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Thus Allah Azza wa Jall will live forever but Allah has ordained for us everlasting life in the Hereafter as is proven in the Holy Quraan. For proof see the verses 105, 106, 107 1nd 108 of the surah Hood (surah Hud). Their English translation is:

(11:105) And when the appointed Day comes, no one shall even dare to speak except by the leave of Allah. Then some will be declared wretched, others blessed.

(11:106) As for the wretched, they shall be in the Fire, and in it they shall sigh and groan.

(11:107) They shall abide in it as long as the heavens and the earth endure, unless your Lord may will otherwise. Surely your Lord does whatsoever He wills.

(11:108) And as for those who are blessed, they shall abide in the Garden as long as the heavens and the earth endure, unless your Lord may will otherwise. They shall enjoy an unceasing gift.
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Therefore, we must choose for ourselves Paradise in the Hereafter by striving hard for the pleasure of Allah and abstaining from HIS anger.

البديع

Al-Badee’

(The Originator, The Incomparable)

This Attribute of Allah Azza wa Jall came in the following verses of the Holy Quraan:

Surah Al-Baqarah verse 117 and surah Al-An’aam verse 101

Their English translation is:

Surah Al-Baqarah 117;

(2:117) He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth; whenever He decrees a matter He (merely) says: “Be”, and it is. 

Surah Al-Anaam 101;

(6:101) He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have a son when He has had no mate? And He has created everything and He has full knowledge of all things.
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(How can a person created be the offspring of the Creator???)

We know that Allah is the Creator and the Originator of everything.
Al-Baari means the Creator and Faatir means the Originator. Al-Badee’ also means the Originator.

In fact, regarding the Great Names of Allah Ta’aala our knowledge is very limited. We cannot explain the difference between these names. The exact meaning is known to Allah only. But the scholars say that:

Al-Baari means The One  Who creates from nothing. That is there are no elements or compounds, no pre-existing matter/particles etc. Thus Allah Ta’aala created all and everything from nothing.

Al-Badee’, on the other hand, means that there is no pre-existing example or sample or any models but Allah plans a thing and creates it. For example, look at the face of mankind. All of this shape is created by Allah azza wa Jall without any precedents. What a proper shape!!! Allah said in surah Infitaar verses 6, 7 and 8:

(Translation)

(82:6) O man! What has deceived you about your generous Lord 

(82:7) Who created you, shaped you, and made you well-proportioned, 

(82:8) and set you in whatever form He pleased?4
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So Allah gave excellent form and shape to mankind. One can try to imagine the excellence of Allah’s Creative Ability by comparing the faces of different people. There are numerous people in this world, they are all created by Allah Azza wa Jall but all of the faces are different from each other although all have a nose, two eyes, a mouth, two cheeks and a forehead. Look at the structure of hand, what a wonderful proportion of the fingers and palm! What a vast variety of works and functions can be performed by the hand!!!

Look at the wonderful structure of the heaven and the earth! The heaven is decorated with stars so that the darkness of the night becomes lighter and the beauty of the sky at night pleases hearts of people.

The earth is made a stable and attractive place for living. It is said that if the distance of the sun from the earth was a little more, all the inhabitants of the earth would be frozen to death; and if it was a little less, then all would get burned. So Allah made everything balanced and in good proportion!!!

This magnificent universe is created and made by Allah Ta’aala in wonderful and excellent shape. Looking at the excellent creation of Allah a sincere Muslim will go into prostration. Surely, in our own nafs and in the universe there are signs of the Greatness of the Creator, Al-Khaaliq and Al-Badee’

Allah said in the Holy Quraan:
(translation of the verse 53 of the surah Ha-meem Al-Sajdah (the other name of this surah is Fussilat).

(41:53) Soon shall We show them Our Signs on the horizons and in their own beings until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth.70 Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?71
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الهادي

Al-Haadee (The Guide)

This beautiful name of Allah came in the Holy Quraan in the following verses:

Surah Al-Hajj verse 54:

54. And so those who were given knowledge may know that it is the truth from your Lord and [therefore] believe in it, and their hearts humbly submit to it. And indeed is Allah the Guide of those who have believed to a straight path.

Surah Al-Furqaan verse 3:

31. And thus have We made for every prophet an enemy from among the criminals. But sufficient is your Lord as a guide and a helper.
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Allah Azza wa Jall is Al-Haadee, The One Who guides HIS servants to all that is good for them in this world and in the Hereafter. And by HIS guidance the awliyaa are led to HIS obedience and to the righteous deeds of HIS Pleasure. Also by the guidance of Allah the animals are guided to do what is good for them and to keep away from the things harmful to them.

Thus Allah created all things and gave them guidance. As Allah said in the surah Al- A’la verses 2 and 3 (their English translation is):
surah Al- A’la verse 2:

(87:2) Who created all things and fashioned them in good proportion;2
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Exp. note 2:

2. That is, He created everything, from the earth to the heavens, in the universe, and gave whatever he created the right proportion and balance and gave every creature the best conceivable form and shape. The same thing has been expressed in Surah As-Sajdah, thus: “Who gave everything He created the best form” (verse 7) Thus, the creation of everything in the world giving it due order and proportion, is an express sign of the truth that some Wise Designer is its Creator. Had the creation of the countless things in the universe been the result of a chance accident, or the work of many creators, there could be no order and balance, no beauty and inner coherence among the many things existing in the world.
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surah Al- A’la verse 3:

(87:3) Who determined3 and guided them,4

Exp.note 3 & 4:

3. Set a destiny: Determined beforehand what would be the function of a certain thing in the world, and for that purpose what would be its size, its form and shape, its qualities, its place of location, and what opportunities and means should be provided for its survival, existence and functioning, when it should come into being, and when and how it should cease to be after completing its part of the work. Such a scheme for a thing is its destiny (taqdir). And this destiny Allah has set for everything in the universe and for the entire universe as a whole. This means that the creation has not come about without a pre-conceived plan, haphazardly, but for it the Creator had a full plan before Him, and everything is happening according to that plan. (For further explanation, see (E.Ns 13, 14 of Surah Al-Hijr); (E.N. 8 of Surah Al-Furqan); (E.N. 25 of Surah Al-Qamar). (E.N. 12 of Surah Abasa).

4. That is, nothing was just created and left to itself, but whatever was created to perform a certain function, it was also taught the method of performing that function. In other words, He is not merely the Creator but Guide too. He has taken the responsibility to give guidance to whatever He has created in a particular capacity to fit its nature and to guide it in the way suitable for it. One kind of guidance is for the earth, the moon, the sun, and the stars and planets, which they are following in performing their role. Another kind of guidance is for water, air, light and the solid and mineral elements, and they are performing the same services for which they have been created accordingly. Still another kind of guidance is for vegetables, according to which they take root and spread in the earth, sprout up from its layers, obtain food from wherever Allah has created it for them, produce stem, branches, leaves, blossom and fruit, and fulfill the function which has been appointed for each of them. Still another kind of guidance is for the countless species of animals of the land, and water, and for each member of the species, the wonderful manifestations of which are clearly visible in the life of the animals and in their works, so much so that even an atheist is compelled to concede that different kinds of animals possess some sort of inspirational knowledge which man cannot obtain even through his instruments, not to speak of his senses. Then, there are two different kinds of guidance for man, which correspond to his two different capacities. One kind of guidance is for his animal life, by which each child learns to suck milk spontaneously on birth, by which the eyes of man, his nose, ear, heart, brain, lungs, kidney, liver, stomach, intestines, nerves, veins and arteries, all are performing their respective functions, without man’s being conscious of it, or his will’s having anything to do with the functions of these organs. This is the guidance under which all physical and mental changes pertaining to childhood, maturity, youth and old age go on taking place in man, independent of his will, choice, even his consciousness. The second kind of guidance is for his intellectual and conscious life, the nature of which is absolutely different from the guidance for unconscious life, for in this sphere of life a kind of freedom has been transferred to man, for which the mode of guidance meant for involuntary life is not suitable. For turning away from this last kind of guidance, man may offer whatever arguments and excuses he may like, it is not credible that the Creator Who has arranged guidance for everything in this universe according to its capacity, might have set for man the destiny that he may appropriate numerous things in His world freely, but might not have made any arrangement to show what is the right way of using his choice and what is the wrong way. (For further explanation, see (E.Ns 9, 10,14, 56 of Surah An-Nahl); (E.N. 23 of Surah TaHa), ( E.Ns 2, 3 of Surah Ar-Rahman); ( E.N. 5 of Surah Ad-Dahr).
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Allah Azza wa Jall said in the surah Taha verse 50:


(20:50) He said: “Our Lord is He22 Who gave everything its form and then guided it.”23
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When Pharaoh (Fir’on) asked the Prophet Musa alaihi salaam as to who was the Lord of the two i.e. who was the Lord of Musa and Haaroon (alaihima salaam), he gave answer as in the above verse (20:50). This verse is explained in the following exp. Notes 22, 23.

Exp. Notes 22, 23:

22. That is, we acknowledge Him alone as our Lord in every sense. He is our Sustainer, our Maker, our Master, our Sovereign and is Supreme in everything, and there is no other Lord in any sense but Him.

23. This concise sentence needs serious attention. It means that it is Allah alone Who has created everything and given it its distinctive structure, form, capabilities, characteristics, etc.

(1) For instance, man has been given the hands and feet which are given the most appropriate structure that was needed for their right functioning.

(2) A human being, an animal, a plant, mineral and the like, air, water and light, everything has been given that particular form which was needed for its right functioning in the universe.

(3) Then He has guided everything aright to function properly. It is He Who has taught everything the way to fulfill that object for which it has been created. He has taught the ear to hear and the eye to see, the fish to swim and the bird to fly; the earth to grow vegetation and the tree to blossom and bear fruit. In short, He is not only the Creator of everything but also its Guide and Teacher.

Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) employed this concise and meaningful sentence to convey the message to Pharaoh and his people. He not only gave a suitable reply to Pharaoh as to who his Lord was, but also told him why He was his Lord, and how there was no other lord but God. The argument implied in it was this: As Pharaoh and every one of his subjects was obliged to Allah for his human form and could not live even for a moment without the functioning of the different parts of his body which were performing their functions in accordance with the guidance of Allah, so Pharaoh’s claim that he was the lord of the people was absurd, and its acknowledgment by his people that he was their lord, a folly.

Besides this, Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) also hinted at the need of Prophethood which was denied by Pharaoh. When Allah guides everything in the universe, He has also to fulfill the need of the guidance of mankind. Whereas the guidance of the animals and birds has been provided by instinct, the guidance of rational human beings has been provided by sending Messengers who appealed to them by rational arguments.
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I think that the verses and the exp. notes given above are sufficient to explain this beautiful name (Al-Haadee) of Allah Azza wa Jall.

النور

Al-Noor (read as An-Noor) (The Light)

Allah said in the surah Al-Noor (An-Nur) verse 35 (its translation is):


35. Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly [white] star lit from [the oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by fire. Light upon light. Allah guides to His light whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is Knowing of all things.
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Another translation of the same verse with some exp. notes is here:


(24:35) Allah61 is the Light of the heavens and the earth.62 His Light (in the Universe) may be likened to a niche wherein is a lamp, and the lamp is in the crystal which shines in star-like brilliance. It is lit from (the oil) of a blessed olive tree63 that is neither eastern nor western.64 Its oil well nigh glows forth (of itself) though no fire touched it: Light upon Light.65 Allah guides to His Light whom He wills.66 Allah sets forth parables to make people understand. Allah knows everything.67
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Exp. note 62:

  1. The phrase heavens and the earth in the Quran is generally used for the universe. Thus the verse would also mean: Allah is the light of the whole universe.

Light is something which makes things visible; which is itself manifest and helps make other things manifest. The human mind conceives light in this very sense. Absence of light is termed darkness, invisibility and obscurity. On the other hand, when there is visibility and things become exposed to view, man says there is light. Allah has been called Light’ in this basic sense, and not in the sense of a beam of light which travels at the speed of 186,000 miles per second and stimulates the optic nerve through the retina. This conception of light has nothing to do with the reality of the meaning for which human mind has coined this word; rather the word light is used for all those lights which we experience in this physical world. All human words used for Allah are used in their basic sense and meaning, and not with reference to their physical connotation. For instance, when, the word sight is used with respect to Allah, it does not mean that Allah has an eye like men and animals with which He sees. Similarly when we say that Allah hears or grips or grasps, it does not mean that He hears through ears, or grips or grasps with the hand like us. These words are used in a metaphorical sense and only a man of very poor intelligence would have the misconception that hearing or seeing or grasping is not possible except in the limited and specific sense in which we experience it. Similarly it will be shortsightedness to interpret the word light in the sense of physical light rays emanating from a luminous body and affecting the retina. This word is not applicable to Allah in its limited sense, but in its absolute sense. That is, He alone in this universe is the real and prime cause of manifestation, otherwise there is nothing but darkness here. Everything which gives light and illuminates other things has received its light from Him; it has no light of its own.
The word light is also used for knowledge, and ignorance is termed as darkness. Allah is the Light of the universe in this sense too, because the knowledge of reality and of right guidance can be obtained from Him alone; without having recourse to His Light, there will be nothing but darkness of ignorance and the resultant vice and wickedness in the world.


Exp. note 65:

65. In this parable, Allah has been likened to the Lamp and the universe to the Niche. The glass shade is the veil behind which Allah has concealed Himself from His creation. This veil is not a physical veil for concealment, but a veil caused by the intensity of divine manifestation. The human eye is unable to see Him not because of the intervening darkness but because of the intensity of the all-pervading, all-embracing Light radiating through the transparent veil. The human vision which is limited in nature cannot comprehend it. It can only comprehend and perceive limited physical lights which vary in brightness, which disappear and reappear, and Which can be perceived only by contrast to existing darkness. But the Absolute Light has no confronting darkness. It does not vanish, it shines forth and pervades all around with ever existing glory; it is beyond human perception and comprehension.

The sentence: His light may be likened, dispels the possible misunderstanding that one could have from the words: Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. This shows that the use of the word light for Allah does not at all mean that the essence of His Being is nothing but light. In essence, He is a Perfect Being, Who is All-Knowing, All- Powerful, All-Wise etc. and also possessing all Light has been called Light itself because of His Perfection as a source of Light, just as somebody may be called Grace on account of his being highly gracious and beneficent, and Beauty because of his being highly beautiful and attractive.
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Exp. note 66:

66. That is, although Allah’s Light is illuminating the whole world, everybody does not and cannot perceive it. It is Allah alone Who blesses whomsoever He wills with the capacity for perceiving His Light and benefiting by it. Just as the day and night are alike to a blind man, so is the case of a man without the gift of inner perception. He may see the electric light, the sunlight, the moonlight and the light from stars, but he cannot perceive the Light of Allah. For him there is nothing but darkness in the universe. Just as a blind man cannot see the stone in his way unless he stumbles over it, so is the man without the gift of inner perception, who cannot perceive even those realities around him which may be all brilliance and shining by Allah’s Light. He will perceive them only when he is overtaken by the consequences of his own misdeeds.
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This verse 35 of the surah Al-Noor is from the mutashabihaat. The meaning of the mutashabhaat is known only to Allah Ta’aala.

But I pasted only important portions from the exp. notes.

Allah’s Light of Guidance is extremely vast but everyone doesn’t have the ability to perceive it. So an unbeliever is in darkness. He/she doesn’t know the purpose of their life and death. They don’t know about the life after death. So they will just waste this precious life without making any good for the Hereafter. His example is given in the verses 39 and 40 of the surah Al-Noor in Allah’s Book as:


(24:39) But for those who deny the Truth,70 their deeds are like a mirage in the desert, which the thirsty supposes to be water until he comes to it only to find that it was nothing; he found instead that Allah was with Him and He paid his account in full. Allah is swift in settling the account.71

(24:40) Or its similitude is that of depths of darkness upon an abysmal sea, covered by a billow, above which is a billow, above which is cloud, creating darkness piled one upon another; when he puts forth his hand, he would scarcely see it.72 He to whom Allah assigns no light, he will have no light.73
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Exp. note 72:

  1. This parable describes the condition of all the disbelievers and the hypocrites including those who perform good deeds for ostentation. It is being stated that such people are passing their life in a state of absolute and complete ignorance, whether they are the most learned people in the world and leaders in their respective fields of learning. They are like the man who is lost in complete darkness where no ray of light can reach him. They think that knowledge merely consists in producing atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, supersonic planes and moon rockets, or in attaining excellence in economics and finance and law and philosophy. But they little understand that real knowledge is something entirely different and they have no idea of it. Thus considered they are just ignorant, and an illiterate peasant who has gained some acquaintance of the divine truth is wiser than them.


    Exp. note 73:

    73. Here is stated the real object of the discourse which began with: Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. When in fact there is no light in the universe except the Light of Allah and all manifestation of reality is due to that Light, where from can the one whom Allah does not give light have light? There exists no other source of light from where he can receive a ray.
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    “Allah is also “The Munawwir-ussamawaati wal-ardi”.That is Allah is the One Who has given light to the heavens and the earth. Allah Azza wa Jall has beautified the world /the universe with the Sun, Moon and stars.

    Allah said in surah Al-Hadeed verse 28 (translation):


    (57:28) Believers, have fear of Allah and believe in His Messenger,55 and He will grant you a two-fold portion of His Mercy, and will appoint for you a light whereby you shall walk;56 and He will forgive you.57 Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Compassionate.
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    One Mercy and light is for this life, the light of the Faith of Islam and all guidance to pass life in accordance with the Quraan and Sunnah.

    The second Mercy and light will be given in the Hereafter when there will be no light except that given to the practicing believers. They will go in that light to cross the narrow difficult path passing over Hell. The hypocrites will not have the light, so they will fall into Hell.

This light of the Hereafter is mentioned in the verse 12 of surah al-Hadeed. Its translation is:


(57:12) On that Day you will see believing men and women that their light will be running before them and on their right hands.17 (They will be told): “A good tiding to you today.” There shall be Gardens beneath which rivers flow; therein they shall abide. That indeed is the great triumph.
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A part of the exp. note 17:

17. This and the following verses show that the light on the Day of Judgment will be specifically meant for the righteous believers only. As for the disbelievers and the hypocrites and the wicked people, they will be wandering about in the darkness as they had been in the world. The light there will be the light of righteous deeds. The sincerity of the faith and the piety of the character and conduct will turn into light that will lend brightness to the personality of the virtuous. The brighter the deed the more luminous will be his person, and when he will walk towards Paradise, his light will be running forward before him. The best explanation of it is Qatadah’s mursal tradition in which he says;

 

“The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ‘The light of some one will be so strong and sharp that it will be running on before him equal to the distance between Al-Madinah and Aden, of another equal to the distance between Madinah and Sana, and of another even less than that; so much so that there will be a believer whose light will just extend beyond his steps. (Ibn Jarir). In other words, the intensity of the light of a person will be proportionate to the extent of the good done and spread by him in the world, and the beams of his light will be running on before him in the Hereafter extending as far as his good will have extended in the world.
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So we must pray for the light of Eemaan and guidance here and in the hereafter as Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam used to pray:


((اللهم اجعل في قلبي نورا, و في سمعي نورا, و في بصري نورا, و عن يميني نورا, و عن شمالي نورا, و من فوقي نورا, و من تحتي نورا, اللهم اجعلني نورا))

(Unanimous)

الضار , Ad-Daarr , النافع , An-Naafi

 


Ad-Daarr 
means The One Who harms i.e. The Distresser,  in Arabic it is written as Al-Daar and is pronounced as Ad-Daar. . And Al-Naafi’ ( read as An-Naafi’) means the One Who benefits i.e. the Benefactor. These are from the beautiful names of Allah Azza wa Jall. These two names are the bases of our life on this earth. Every action of the mankind on this earth is either to benefit or to protect from harm. So anything or action which gives a result beyond these two aims, is haram (unlawful/forbidden) because it will be harmful at once or in the long run. The examples are: Drinking wine or eating drugs will give a little short-term enjoyment but afterwards these harm the health of the users. Zina /Adultery gives short term pleasure but it destroys the human race.

One can consider the balanced flying of a kite in the air. It is controlled by a string at the hand of a person. If the string cuts off the kite will get entangled in some plant etc. So it will be torn off. Similarly, we are controlled by Allah’s Commands. In case of disobedience the disobedient servant faces harm here or in the Hereafter. Now some details about each of the beautiful names:

الضار

Ad-Daarr (The Distresser)

Allah azza wa Jall said in Surah Yoonus 49 (English translation):

(10:49) Tell them: ‘I have no power to harm or benefit even myself, except what Allah may will.57 There is an appointed term for every people; and when the end of their term comes, neither can they put it off for an hour, nor can they bring it an hour before.58
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Exp. notes 57 & 58:

57. This is to say, I never said that I will sit in judgment on you and inflict torment on those who do not believe in me. Therefore, I am not in a position to tell when the threat will be made good. As the threat has been held out by Allah, He will pass His judgment on you when He wills, and in whatever way He wills, for everything depends on His will.

58. That is, Allah passes His judgment on individuals and communities after the expiry of the term that He Himself has set and He alone knows how long it lasts for a community. He is not hasty in giving rewards or punishments. When He sends His Messenger to deliver His Message, He allows sufficient time to each individual and to each community to consider it and ponder over it and mend his (or its) way, during the appointed term. The period of the term may extend to centuries in the case of a community and He knows best how long it should be.

When that term, which is based on justice, expires, and that person or community does not repent of its rebellious conduct, then Allah passes His judgment. When the time of the judgment comes, it is neither advanced nor delayed even by a single hour.
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Allah Ta’aala tests us taking away one benefit and giving harm and then
taking away harm and giving benefit to see what is the reaction of the abd (servant) in different circumstances. Allah Azza wa Jall said in surah Al-Nahl (An-Nahl) verse 53 to 55. Their translation is here:

(16:53) Every bounty that you enjoy is from Allah; and whenever any misfortune strikes you, it is to Him that you cry for the removal of your distress.46

Exp. note 46:

  1. That is: the fact, that you run to Allah for help in your distress and not to anyone else, is a clear proof of the Oneness of Allah, which has been embedded in your own hearts. At the time of your affliction, your true nature, which had been suppressed by the gods you had forged, involuntarily comes to the surface and invokes Allah, for it knows no other god or lord or master, having any real power. (For further details please refer to (E.Ns 29 and 41 of Surah Al-Anaam).
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    (16:54) But as soon as He removes the distress from you, some of you associate others with their Lord47in giving thanks,
    Exp. note 47:47. That is, at the time of showing gratitude to Allah for removing his affliction, he begins to make offerings also to some god, goddess or saint to show that Allah’s kindness to him was due to the intercession of his patron, for he imagines that otherwise Allah would not have removed his distress.
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    (16:55) that they may show ingratitude for the bounties We bestowed upon them. So enjoy yourselves for a while, soon you will come to know (the truth).
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    You can see the above three verses and the exp. notes to understand the behavior of unjust human beings. So Allah, as Ad-Daarr will cause some harm to the person. Then the person will cry to Allah for the removal of the trouble. This is because due to his nature (fitrah) he /she understand that only One Allah can remove the trouble from him /her. Then Allah Azza wa Jall will remove his trouble and will benefit him/her. And then he/she, in paying thanks to Allah, associates others with Allah and thus give the proof of committing shirk. So they become punishable and Allah is reminding in the verse 55 (its translation is above) the truth which shall be known to everyone in the Hereafter on the Day of Judgment. That truth is clearly explained in the Holy Quraan and Sunnah that Only Allah is the Giver of harm and benefit. Therefore, seek help only from Allah. In case you associated other partner with Allah and you died with shirk, you shall be punished in Hell forever!!!

    Surah Al-Nisaa (An-Nisaa) verse 123 (Translation):


    (4:123) It is neither your fancies nor the fancies of the People of the Book which matter. Whoever does evil shall reap its consequence and will find none to be his protector and helper against Allah.
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When the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) read the above verse o
f the surah Al-Nisaa (An-Nisaa), Abu-Bakar rAa became very much worried. He said, “Who among us is free from making mistakes? So everyone will be harmed!!!”

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said:

“غفر الله لك يا ابا بكر “

“May Allah forgive you o Aba Bakar”

Then the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) explained to him like, “ don’t you become sick? Don’t you get surrounded by worries? Don’t you come across troubles /difficulties?”

He answered, “why not”.

Then the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) told him that these are the harms which are inflicted on Muslims to wipe out their sins.
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(And Allah knows best about the exact conversation between Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallm and Abu Bakar rAa)

Thus a Muslim may face harm due to some sin or mistake and the harm or trouble inflicted upon him/her will clean them from the sins. The harm may be a type of sickness or some other trouble.

Then there are very good, God-fearing Muslims who suffer from harms etc. Even the prophets alaihim salaam, (who were very innocent), suffered illnesses and troubles!!!

This is because in such cases the harm/trouble etc. cause their ranks to become very high!!!

 

النافع , An-Naafi

 

(The Benefactor)


The Attribute of Al-Naafi’ (An-Naafi’) is very manifest and doesn’t need examples. Every one of the mankind is enjoing numerous benefits day and night. All of the benefits are given by Allah azza wa Jall alone. In the light of the Holy Quraan and hadeeth, it is very clear that if the whole world wants to benefit you by something, she cannot benefit you except by the thing that Allah Ta’aala decreed for you. Similarly, if the whole world wants to harm you by something, she cannot not except by the thing that Allah decreed for you. So we must bow down only to Allah for anything that we need or want.

We know from the Holy Quraan, the way of the Prophets alaihim salaam that they always attributed good and benefits to Allah but they didn’t attribute harms to Allah. For e.g. we see in the verse 10 of the Surah Al-Jinn:
10. And we do not know [therefore] whether evil is intended for those on earth or whether their Lord intends for them a right course.
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At the time of the revelation of the Holy Quraan, the guarding of the worldly heaven became very strict, so much strict that if a Jinn heard something from the heaven, he was targeted by a shooting star!!!. This type of security measures were taken to prevent eavesdropping, so that no jinn would be able to eavesdrop and thus would not be able to interfere with the Divine communication with the prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him).

The Jinn understood that something special was going to happen to the people of the earth, but they could not know what was going to happen. So they discussed the situation with each other. When they thought about some evil, they said: “whether evil is intended for those on earth”. But when they spoke about the right course, they said: “or whether their Lord intends for them a right course”.

Thus good is attributed to Allah while the happening of the harm/evil is not attributed to Allah Azza wa Jall. Similarly, there are many other places in the Holy Quraan where good is attributed to Allah Ta’aala and not bad happenings. Ibrheem alaihi salaam said: “when I become sick then HE (Allah) cures me. Thus Ibraheem alaihi salaam attributed only good to Allah Azza Wa Jall. This way is used for the Honor of Allah Azza wa Jall. But also there is a deep reason for it. The reason is that Allah Ta’aala is a Uniquely Kind Sovereign and Lord. Allah is bestowing numerous blessings on mankind. But Allah’s Justice happens due to the transgression of a person. Therefore the transgressor is to be blamed and not Allah Azza wa Jall.

المانع

Al-Maani’ (The Preventer)

Allah All-Mighty is the Preventer and With-Holder of whatever Allah Ta’aala wants to prevent. The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him), after obligatory salaat (prayer), used to say the followings:

لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له, له الملك وله الحمد و هو على كل شىئ قدير. اللهم لا مانع لما أعطيت ولا معطي لما منعت , ولا ينفع ذا الجد منك الجدُ.

(Saheeh Al-Bukhaari and Muslim)

The meaning of the above du’aa is:

“There is no God except Allah, HE is One (God), there is no partner with HIM, to HIM belongs the kingdom and HIS are the praises, and HE has power over all things”.

“O Allah, what YOU give, no one can prevent it and what YOU withhold, no one can give it, and near YOU no one can be benefited by his wealth.”

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So no matter how much wealth or high status a person has but near Allah it will be of no benefit. He is benefited only by the faith of Islam and righteous deeds.

Allah said in the surah Faatir verse 2:


2. Whatever of mercy (i.e. of good), Allah grants to mankind, none can withhold it, and whatever He withholds, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.

Another translation of the same verse is:


(35:2) Whatever Mercy Allah accords to people, none can withhold; and whatever He withholds, no other will be able to release after Him.4 He is Most Mighty, Most Wise.5
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Exp. notes 4 and 5:
Exp. note 4:

4. This is also meant to remove the misunderstanding of the polytheists, who believed that from among the servants of Allah, someone gave them the provision, someone the children and someone health to their patients. All these superstitions of shirk are baseless, and the pure truth is just that whatever of mercy reaches the people, reaches to them only through Allah All-Mighty’s bounty and grace. No one else has the power either to bestow it or to withhold it. This theme has been expressed at many places in the Quran and the Ahadith in different ways so that man may avoid the humiliation of begging at every door and at every shrine and may realize that making or marring of his destiny is in the power of One Allah alone and of none else.


Exp. note 5:

5. “He is the All-Mighty”: He is dominant and the owner of Sovereignty: none can stop His judgments from being enforced. Also “He is All-Wise”: every act of His is based on wisdom. When He gives somebody something He gives because it is demanded by wisdom, and when He withholds something from somebody, He withholds it because it would be against wisdom to give it.
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Thus nothing can happen without the will of Allah Azza wa Jall. A single leaf in a tree cannot move. The breath of a person will stop if Allah All-Mighty withholds it from happening. A person will not be able to move a single step. So we must be very humble and obedient to Allah as well as very thankful to HIM for our life and actions etc.


Al-Maani’ also means Al-Mudaafi’. 

See the verse 251 (translation) of the surah Al-Baqarah:

(2:251) Thereupon by Allah’s leave they put the unbelievers to flight, and David killed Goliath,273 and Allah granted him dominion and wisdom, and imparted to him the knowledge of whatever He willed.And were it not that Allah repelled some people with another, the earth would surely be overlaid with mischief.274 But Allah is Bounteous to the people of the world (and thus extirpates mischief).
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Thus Allah stops / prevents the mischief of the evil people from the good ones. If Allah Azza wa Jall didn’t allow the good people to fight against the mischief makers and repel them then the whole land would be filled up with mischief and killing (like it is happening now because the mischief makers are left free to do whatever they want. This is due to the disobedience of the powerful Muslims to their Lord Allah Ta’aala!!).

Again, all of the heavenly bodies in the universe are held within their orbits only by the All-Mighty Allah. Allah Azza wa Jall is preventing them from collision. So Allah said in the surah Yaseen verse 40:

40. It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).

Thus by the Grace of Allah we all live in comfort because all of the stars and planets etc. rotate in their orbits. If Allah didn’t withhold them then collision between the heavenly bodies (Sun, Moon, stars, planets etc.) would happen resulting in killer catastrophe. So we all must be very thankful to Allah Azza wa Jall and we must worship and obey Allah for our prosperity in both of the worlds.