Month: October 2019

المتعالي

Al-Muta’aalee (The most High, The Self-Exalted)
This name comes from the word uluw which means very high. The dictionary meanings of this word “Uluw” include highness, loftiness and supreme. Another Attribute of the same meaning is Al-Ali which is present here. It should be read for more information. Al-Muta’aal is the more exaggerated form of Highness. Allah Azza wa Jall said in the surah Al-Ra’d (Ar-Ra’d) verse 9 (here only the English translation is given):


9. He is the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, the Great, the High Exalted.
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A hadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) says:

“Anta Al-Zaahir falesa fawqaka she’ ( YOU are the Manifest, the Most High so there is nothing above YOU. Wa anta Al-Baatin falesa doonaka she’ (and YOU are the Most Hidden so there is nothing beyond YOU)”.

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“There is nothing above YOU” literally means like physically there is none above YOU. But it also means that Allah is much much High than our capacity to understand Allah’s Highness!!! Therefore, we, Muslims, use the names Allah Azza wa Jall, Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala and Allah Ta’aala.


Azza
 is from Azeez and it means the Owner of Dignity and Might.

Jall
 means the One Who has all the Awe-Inspiring Attributes.

Subhaanahu
 means HE has no fault or defect. And Ta’ala means the Most High, the Exalted.

So Allah is the Al-Kabeerul Muta’aal i.e. very High beyond our capacity to understand. Here the important point is that we must be careful from thinking of any shape or form or place for Allah All-Mighty. Allah Ta’aala and HIS Throne are beyond our understanding. We should not imagine Allah Azza wa Jall to be sitting on HIS Throne (We seek the refuge of Allah from such imaginations). Although Allah has the Throne but only Allah knows best about HIMSELF and HIS Throne. Allah is above the Throne while His Knowledge encompasses each and every place. So we can say that Allah Ta’aala is very High and the Most High, in whichever way Allah Ta’aala has made it befitting for HIMSELF.

الوالي

Al-Waalee

( The Patron, The Governer, The Defender)

Allah Azzah wa Jall governs all affairs. A verse of the Holy Quraan will better explain it.
Surah Al-Ra’d (pronounced as Ar-Ra’d) verse 11

(13:11).For each one are successive [angels] before and behind him who protect him by the decree of Allah. Indeed, Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves. And when Allah intends for a people ill, there is no repelling it. And there is not for them besides Him any defender. 

Another translation of the same verse is:

(13:11) There are guardians over everyone, both before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah’s command.18 Verily Allah does not change a people’s condition unless they change their inner selves. And when Allah decides to make a people suffer punishment, no one can avert it. Nor can any be of help to such a people against Allah.19
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Exp. note 18 and 19:

18. That is, Allah not only directly watches over whatever each person does, and is fully aware of everything he does, but He has also appointed such guardians as accompany him everywhere and keep a full record of all his deeds. This has been stated here to warn those people who live their lives under the delusion that they have been left absolutely free to do whatever they like and shall not be required to render an account of what they did in this worldly life. The warning is that such people invite their own retribution.

19. This is to warn them further that they should not remain under any delusion that some holy person or saint or angel has the power to rescue them from divine retribution, for there is none who could defend them against Allah, even though they might have been paying homage and making offerings to their so called patrons and protectors in the hope that they would rescue them from punishment from Allah on the Day of Judgment.
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Also Allah All-Mighty said in the same surah in verse 8:


(13:8) Allah knows what every female bears; and what the wombs fall short of (in gestation), and what they may add.17 With Him everything is in a fixed measure.
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Exp note 17:

17. When amplified the verse will mean: Allah remains fully aware of all the developments that take place in the child while in its mother’s womb and He watches over the decrease or increase in each of its limbs, and its potentialities, capabilities and powers.
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Thus Allah governs all affairs of everyone and everything in the Universe. We have got very little understanding of the Attributes of Allah. But Know: that Allah is very Great.

The Names Al-Wali and Al-Waalee are derived from the same root word waw, laam and ya. Therefore the sholars mix up the meaning and explanation of the two names “Al-Walee and Al-Waalee”. These are also written as Al-Wali and Al-Waali but I think “ee” in the end of both of these names is more correct.

The dictionary meanings of the two names are also somewhat similar, as you can see here:

Waal (Al-Waali) = Ruler, Governer.

Waali = Naasir = to support, back up, stand by.

Wali ala = to manage, rule.

Wali = guardian, caretaker.

Wali = Naseer = Patron, supporter, protector, defender.

So you can read the name Al-Wali. Regarding the support of Allah to Allah’s friends (Awliya-Allah), you can read the verses 30—-32 of the surah Fussilat (Ha-Meem) given here along with their explanation from tafheem.net

30. In the case of those who say, “Our Lord is Allah”, and, further, stand straight and steadfast, the angels descend on them (from time to time): “Fear ye not!” (they suggest), “Nor grieve! but receive the Glad Tidings of the Garden (of Bliss), the which ye were promised!

31. “We are your protectors in this life and in the Hereafter: therein shall ye have all that your souls shall desire; therein shall ye have all that ye ask for!-

32. “A hospitable gift from the One Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful!”

Another translation of the same 3 verses is:

(41:30) Those32 who say “Allah is our Lord” and then remain steadfast,33 upon them descend angels34 (and say): “Do not fear nor grieve,35and receive good tidings of Paradise which you were promised.
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Exp. Notes 32—35:

32. After warning the disbelievers of the consequences of their opposition to the truth and their stubbornness, the address now turns to the believers and the Prophet (peace be upon him).

33. That is, they did not call Allah their Lord merely incidentally, nor were they involved in the error to regard Allah as their Lord and at the same time others as well as their lords, but they embraced the faith sincerely and stood by it steadfastly: neither adopted a creed contrary to it later nor mixed it up with a false creed, but they fulfilled the demands of the doctrine of Tauhid in their practical lives as well.

“Then remain upright” has been explained by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the eminent companions thus:

Anas has reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Many people called Allah their Lord, but most of them became disbelievers. Firm and steadfast is he who remained firm on this creed till his death. (Ibn Jarir, Nasai, Ibn Abi Hatim).

Abu Bakr Siddiq has explained it thus: Then he did not associate another with Allah: did not attend to any other deity beside Him. (Ibn Jarir).

Umar once recited this verse on the pulpit and said: By God, the steadfast are those who remained firm on obedience to Allah: did not run about from place to place like foxes. (Ibn Jarir).

Uthman says: Performed his deeds sincerely for the sake of Allah only. (Kashshaf).

Ali says: Performed the duties enjoined by Allah faithfully and obediently. (Kashshaf).

34. It is not necessary that the coming down of the angels may be perceptible, and the believers may see them with the eyes, or hear their voices with the ears. Although Allah also sends the angels openly for whomever He wills, generally their coming down for the believers, especially in hard times when they are being persecuted by the enemies of the truth, takes place in imperceptible ways and their voices penetrate into the depths of the heart as peace and tranquility instead of just striking the ear-drums. Some commentators have regarded this coming down of the angels as restricted to the time of death or grave, or the Plain of Resurrection. But if the conditions in which these verses were sent down are kept in view, there remains no doubt that the real object of stating this thing here is to mention the coming down of the angels on those who struggle with their lives in this world in the cause of the truth, so that they are consoled and encouraged and they rest assured that they are not helpless but the angels of Allah are at their back. Although the angels also come to receive the believers at the time of death and they also welcome them in the grave (in the state of burzakh), and they will also accompany them constantly on the Day of Resurrection, from the time Resurrection takes place till their entry into Paradise, yet their company is not particularly restricted to the Hereafter but remains available in this world also. The context clearly shows that in the conflict between the truth and falsehood just as the worshipers of falsehood are accompanied by the devils and mischievous people, so are the believers accompanied by the angels. On the one hand, the companions of the worshipers of falsehood show their misdeeds seem fair to them and assure them that the tyrannical and dishonest acts that they are committing are the very means of their success and through them only will their leadership and dominance remain safe in the world. On the other hand, the angels come down to the worshipers of the truth and give them the message that is being mentioned in the following sentences.

35. These are very comprehensive words, which contain a new theme of consolation and peace for the believers, in every stage of life, from the world till the Hereafter. This counsel of the angels in this world means: No matter how strong and powerful be the forces of falsehood, you should not be afraid of them, and whatever hardships and deprivations you may have to experience on account of your love of the truth, you should not grieve on account of them, for ahead there lie in store for you such things against which every blessing of the world is insignificant. When the angels say the same words at the time of death, they mean this: There is no cause of fear for you in the destination you are heading for, for Paradise awaits you there, and you have no cause of grief for those whom you are leaving behind in the world, for we are your guardians and companions here. When the angels will say these very words in the intermediary state between death and Resurrection and in the Plain of Resurrection, they will mean: Here, there is nothing but peace for you. Do not grieve for the hardships you had to suffer in the world, and do not fear what you are going to face in the Hereafter, for we are giving you the good news of Paradise, which used to be promised to you in the world.
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2nd translation of the remaining two verses:

(41:31) We are your companions in this world and in the Hereafter. There you shall have all that you desire and all what you will ask for.

(41:32) This is by way of hospitality from Him Who is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.” 
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These last verses are already explained in the above exp. notes.

الأول , الآخر, الظاهر, الباطن

Al-Awwal, Al-Aakhir, Al-Zaahir (pronounced as Az-Zaahir), Al-Baatin

 

Al-Awwal (The First )
Al-Aakhir (The Last )
Al-Zaahir pronounced as Az-Zaahir (The Manifest One, The Evident )
Al-Baatin (The Hidden One)

All of these four names came together in one aayah and that is the verse 3 of surah Al-Hadeed. Its English translation is:

Surah Al-Hadeed 3 (translation only):


(57:3) He is the First and the Last, and the Manifest and the Hidden,3 and He has knowledge of everything
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Exp.note 3 of the surah Al-Hadeed on tafheem.net:

3. That is, when there was nothing, He was, and when there will be nothing, He will be. He is the most Manifest of all the manifests, for whatever manifests itself in the world, does so only by His attributes and His works and His light. And He is the Most Hidden of all the hidden, for not only do the senses fail to perceive Him but the intellect and thought and imagination also cannot attain to His essence and reality. The best commentary in this regard is a supplication of the Prophet (peace be upon him) which Imam Ahmad, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Baihaqi have related on the authority of Abu Hurairah, and Hafiz Abu Yala Mosuli in his Musnad on the authority of Aishah rAa:

Antal Awwal, fa-laisa qablaka shaiin; wa Antal Akhir falaisa ba’ daka shaiin; wa Antal Zahir,fa-laisa fauqaka shai in; wa Antal Batin, fa laisa dunaka shaiin. You alone are the First; none is before You; You alone are the Last: none is after You; You alone are the Manifest; none is above You; You alone are the Hidden: none is more hidden than You.

Here, the question arises: How does this accord with the immortality and eternal life of the dwellers of Paradise and Hell mentioned in the Quran when Allah alone is the Last and Eternal? Its answer has been provided by the Quran itself: Everything is perishable except Allah Himself. (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 88). In other words no creature is immortal in its personal capacity; if a thing exists or continuous to exist, it does so because Allah keeps it so, and can exist only by His letting it exist; otherwise in its own capacity everything is perishable except Allah. Immortality in Heaven and Hell will not be bestowed upon somebody because he is immortal by himself, but because Allah will grant him eternal life. The same is true of the angels, they are not immortal by themselves. When Allah willed they came into existence, and will continue to exist only as long as He wills.

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Al-Qasas 88:


88. And do not invoke with Allah another deity. There is no deity except Him. Everything will be destroyed except His Face. His is the judgement, and to Him you will be returned.
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Also Allah said in the surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verse 26 and 27:


26. Every one upon the earth will perish,

27. And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.

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In the comprehensive meaning of these names comes that The Rabb Tabaarak wa Ta’ala encompasses the whole creation and that encompassing is zammniyyah wa makaaniyyah i.e. space related and time related. So Allah was before everyone and everything and shall exist and remain after the end of everyone and everything. Allah has been present since ever and shall exist for ever. From the beginning to the end of the creation/ universe everything and everyone is in Allah’s control. That is the time related encompassing.

As for the space related encompassing Allah encompasses everything on its open side as well as its hidden aspects. So Allah is upon everything which is manifest and whatever is hidden Allah is more hidden than that. As the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said: “ wa anta Al- Zaahir fa lesa fawqaka she-in wa anta Al-Baatin fa lesa doonaka she-in. So in HIS Appearance Allah is Higher than all, HIS Throne is above the seven heavens and Allah is above the Thrown. At the same time Allah is so much hidden that none of the eyes can see HIM. Although Allah is so much High but is wonderfully near everything and every creature. Allah said in surah Qaaf verse 16:

Surah Qaaf verse 16 (English translation):


16. And indeed We have created man, and We know what his own self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.
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As Allah is Al-Baatin (The Hidden) and is so near to each and every one, no secret of mankind can remain hidden from HIM. HE (Allah) is extremely near every being with HIS Knowledge and Power and knows every state, internal and external of each creature and controls it in the way HE likes!!!

Now when the Scientific developments have happened, some of the scientists dealing with the DNA and genes of mankind were struck with wonder because they found inside the cell nucleus numerous commands for the formation of different types of body proteins!!! They were in a state of fear due to the GREATNESS of the Creator, Who has given such wise Commands to the DNA for great functions like the manufacture of proteins. They admitted and declared that a Great Wise Creator exists and that Evolution theory is false and is without any scientific bases!!!

When a person gets the knowledge of these four names, then he/she must become very humble before the Almighty God (Allah) and must pay thanks to HIM. He /she must worship only Allah and at difficult times must call only Allah. Also he/she must trust Allah because only Allah can fulfill our needs, can help us in our difficult times, and can remove trouble from us; and also because we are on our way to return to Allah and to appear in HIS Court.

These four names of Allah collectively help us to get acquainted about Allah and Allah’s worship. These are also enough to suppress and crush the waswasa (bad ideas from Satans). According to a Hadeeth in the Sunan Abi Da’wood, narrated by Abi Zumeel Samaak bin Al-Waleed; he asked about a bad waswasa in his heart. Ibn Abbaas rAa told him that if he found something in his heart/mind, he should say:

هو الأول و الآخر و الظاهر والباطن, وهو بكل شىئ عليم

(Surah Al-Hadeed verse 3)

Its meaning is:

3. He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Hidden: and He has full knowledge of all things.
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Thus Ibn Abbaas told the solution for waswasa. Waswasah is suppressed and crushed by reciting this verse, we must trust Allah and get rid of waswasah.

المقدم , المؤخر

Al-Muqaddim [The Expediter (He who brings forward)]

 Al-Mu’akhkhir [The Delayer (He who brings backwards)]

 
These two Attributes of Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala came in some authentic ahadeeth of the Final Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him).
Abu Musa Al-Ashari said that the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to make du’aa as:

Allahumm-aghfirlee khatee-atee wa jahlee, Wa israafee fee amree, wa ma anta a’lamu bihee minnee, Allahumm-aghfirlee jiddee wa hazlee, wa khat-ee wa amdee, wa kullu dhalika indee, Allahumm-aghfirlee ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu, wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu, wa ma anta a’lamu bihee minnee, anta Al-Muqaddim wa anta Al-Mu-akhkhir, wa anta ala kulli shey-in Qadeer.
(Al-Bukhaari wa Muslim)

ورد في الحديث الصحيح، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه كان يدعو بين التشهد والتسليم
ويقول: ((اللهم اغفر لي ما قدمت، وما أخرت وما أسررت، وما أعلنت، وما أسرفت، وما أنت أعلم به مني. أنت المقدم وأنت المؤخر لا إله إلا أنت))

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) , while praying tahajjad used to say the following du’aa

اللهم لك الحمد أنت قيم السموات والأرض و من فيهن و لك الحمد انت ملك السموات والارض ومن فيهن و لك الحمد وانت رب السموات والارض ومن فيهن, و لك الحمد و انت نور السموات والارض و من فيهن انت الحق و قولك الحق و وعدك الحق ولقاؤك حق والساعة حق والجنة حق و النار حق والنبيون حق و محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم حق, اللهم لك اسلمت و بك امنت و عليك توكلت وإليك أنبت وبك خاصمت وإليك حاكمت فاغفرلي ما قدمت وما أخرت وما اسررت وما أعلنت أنت المقدم و أنت المؤخر لا إله إلا أنت أو لا إله غيرك

 

These ahadeeth have very important du’aas. Therefore saying these du’aas in Arabic will be very good for you. You can find their translation on the net.

These two attributes of Allah come together and this is only the Power of Allah All-Mighty to expedite or delay whatever HE wills. And these are the proof of the Ability of Allah to establish HIS Commands with HIS Absolute Wisdom! Allah expedites some of the creation and delays others in their persons, their functions and in their qualities!!!

In the universe, some of the creations are made ahead of others in their strength, speed, usefulness etc. Causes and conditions are made former to the results, and all of these are done according to a fixed measure and proportion. Among human beings, concerning the Deen of Islam, the Prophets (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon them) are made to be the foremost. Also some of them are made superior to others about which only Allah knows, we are ordered to abstain from making any difference among them. Also Allah made some of the Muslims higher than others in the rank of righteousness. Some of the Muslims have more knowledge, stronger Faith, better character and other good qualities. All such expediting or delaying is according to the Wisdom and Justice of Allah.

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to pray to Allah for the forgiveness of all sins as he (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to say:

 

“Allahumm-aghfirlee (Ya Allah, may YOU forgive me) ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu (the sins that I did before or later) wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu (and what I did in hidden and that which I did in the open)”. So we also must pray like the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) as He came to teach us by the Command of Allah. The Prophets alaihim salaam used to be very innocent although they were human beings and thus mistakes were possible from them. But the real sinners are we. So we need these du’aas much more. We must hope the Mercy of Allah and should never be hopeless but we must try to protect ourselves from making sins and we shouldn’t feel fearless of the Plans of Allah.

Allah said in surah Al-A’raaf verses 97—:

97. Did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our wrath by night while they were asleep?

98. Or are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them in the daytime while they play?

99. Did they then feel secure against the plan of Allah?- but no one can feel secure from the Plan of Allah, except those (doomed) to ruin!

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القادر, ألمقتدر, القدير

Al- Qaadir, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Qadeer,
(The All-Powerful)

The dictionary meaning of all of them is the All-Powerful. Al-Muqtadir also means the Creator of all power. The other meanings are the Omnipotent, the Sovereign, the Able and the Capable to do everything. All of these three names came in the Holy Quraan, the most frequently coming is Al-Qadeer, then Al-Qaadir and then is the Al-Muqtadir. Some of the verses mentioning these names are the following;

(Only their English translation is given):

Al-Baqarah 284;

(2:284) All that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah. Whether you disclose whatever is in your hearts or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it, and will then forgive whomsoever He wills, and will chastise whomsoever He wills. Allah has power over everything.
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Faatir 44;

(35:44) Have they not journeyed in the earth to behold the end of those who went before them though they were stronger than them in might? Nothing in the heavens nor on earth can frustrate Him in the least. He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.
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Al-An’aam 65;

(6:65) Say: “It is He Who has the power to send forth chastisement upon you from above you, or from beneath your feet, or split you into hostile groups and make some of you taste each others’ violence. Behold, how We set forth Our signs in diverse forms, so that maybe they will understand the Truth”.
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Exp. note 42:

42. God’s punishment can strike in an instant. This is the warning to those who, supposing such punishment to be remote, were growing bolder in their hostility towards the Truth. They could be destroyed in a moment by a hurricane. Just a few earthquake trernors could raze villages and cities to the ground. Likewise, a few spark, of hostility could ultimately wreak such havoc among tribes. nations and countries that bloodshed and lawlessness plague them for years on end. Hence if they are spared punishments for a while that should not drug them to heedlessness and lead them to live in total disregard of distinctions between right and wrong. They should rather be grateful that God had given thern respite and by means of a number of signs He was making it possible for thern to recognize the Truth and foliow it.
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Al-Kahf 45;

45.And put forward to them the example of the life of this world, it is like the water (rain) which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds scatter. And Allah is Able to do everything.
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All of these names prove the Attribute of the power of Allah. Allah is the Absolute Owner of all Power. The presence of the universe and its management are all due to the Power of Allah.

It is the Creative Power of Allah that HE created Adam alaihi salaam from mud and then created Hawa (eve) alaiha salaam from the left rib of Adam alaihi salaam. Then Allah Almighty continued the creation of all mankind by the union of male and female cells. And also Allah the Greatest created Eisa (Jesus) alaihi salaam from a single parent and that was his mother Maryam (Mary) alaiha salaam!

Then Allah has the Power to give us all a new life at the time of Resurrection and pass judgment on all of us.

According to the saying of the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him), Allah, the All-Powerful, had prepared Hell long before the creation of man. So the angels used to weep a lot due to fear that if they made a mistake, they would be punished in Hell. But after the creation of man, the angels understood the purpose of Hell (that it was made to punish mankind and jinn) and they stopped weeping. Allah’s Power is such that Allah when decrees a matter, just says to it “kun” which means “be” and it happens right then and there!!!

According to a Hadeeth shareef narrated by Aanas rAa, the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said that the hearts of all mankind are between two fingers from the fingers of Allah and Allah turns them (the hearts of mankind) as HE wills. Therefore the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used very frequently to make du’aa, “Ya Muqallib-al-quloob, thabbit qalbee ala Deenik”.
( Al-Tirmidhee and Ibn. Maajah),
This du’aa means, “O the Turner of hearts, keep my heart strong on your Deen (Islam)”.

 

Thus according to this Hadeeth Shareef, Allah Almighty will guide a heart or let it go astray as HE wills but the Will of Allah depends upon Allah’s vast knowledge and wisdom. Therefore, we must also make the same du’aa.

Also this is due to the Power of Allah that no one can encompass some thing from the Knowledge of Allah. If Allah wills, HE gives knowledge to whomever HE wills.

Allah created the heavens and the earth in six days and didn’t become tired!!! No one can humble Allah while everyone is in the control of Allah. None of the numerous eyes can see Allah while Allah can see each eye and each look along with the intention of the servant behind his looks. Anything that Allah wants shall happen and what Allah doesn’t want shall not happen.

Our destiny is also due to the Power of Allah. We must believe in destiny that the good and evil thereof is from Allah. If a person believes in Allah but does not believe in destiny then his faith is not perfect (he is like unbeliever). Belief in Destiny is one of the articles of the Faith of Islam.

Allah the All-Mighty said:

Surah Al-Qamar 49 (English translation):

49. Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation, as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz).
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Another translation of the same verse:

49. Indeed, all things We created with predestination.
3rd translation of the same verse:

49. Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure.
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Al-Ahzaab 38:

38. There is no blame on the Prophet (SAW) in that which Allah has obligated upon him. That has been Allah’s Way with those who have passed away of (the Prophets of) old. And the Command of Allah is a decree determined.
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Al-Furqaan 2:

2. He to whom belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth: He has chosen no son nor has He any partner in His Sovereignty. He created all things, and ordered them in due proportions.
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We must fear Allah the All-Powerful because we have no way to escape Allah’s Justice and Allah’s Justice shall take people to Hell.

 

الصمد

Al-Samad pronounced as

 As-Samad

 (The Absolute Master and Refuge for all, The Self-Sufficient)

The Following explanation of Al-Samad (As-Samad) is from the commentary of surah Al-Ikhlaas in Tafheemul-Quraan. The translation of surah Al-Ikhlaas:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ 

قُلۡ هُوَ اللّٰهُ اَحَدٌ​ ۚ

اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ​َ

لَمۡ يَلِدۡ ۙ وَلَمۡ يُوۡلَدۡ ۙ‏ 

وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَّهٗ كُفُوًا اَحَدٌ‏


Translation


(112:1) Say:1 “He is Allah,2 the One and Unique;3

(112:2) Allah, Who is in need of none and of Whom all are in need;4

(112:3) He neither begot any nor was He begotten,5

(112:4) and none is comparable to Him.”6
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Explanation of the Attribute “As-Samad” from Tafheemul-Quraan:

Exp. note 4:

4. The word used in the original is samad of which the root is smd. A look at the derivatives in Arabic from this root will show how comprehensive and vast this word is in meaning. (Lexical discussion of the meanings of the derivatives is omitted).

On the basis of these lexical meanings the explanations of the word as-Samad in the verse Allah-us-Samad, which have been reported from the companions, their immediate successors and the later scholars are given below:

Ali, Ikrimah and Kab Ahbar: Samad is he who has no superior.

Abdullah bin Masud, Abdullah bin Abbas and Abu Wail Shaqiq bin Salamah: The chieftain whose chieftaincy is perfect and of the most extraordinary kind.

Another view of Ibn Abbas: Samad is he to whom the people turn when afflicted with a calamity. Still another view of his: The chieftain who in his chieftaincy, in his nobility and glory, in his clemency and forbearance, in his knowledge and wisdom is perfect.

Abu Hurairah: He who is independent of all and all others are dependent upon him.

Other views of Ikrimah: He from whom nothing ever has come out, nor normally comes out, who neither eats nor drinks. Views containing the same meaning have been related from Shabi and Muhammad bin Kab al-Kurazi also.

Suddi: The one to whom the people turn for obtaining the things they need and for help in hardships.

Saeed bin Jubair: He who is perfect in all his attributes and works.

Rabi bin Jubair: He who is immune from every calamity.

Muqatil bin Hayyan: He who is faultless.

Ibn Kaysan: He who is exclusive in His attributes.

Hasan Basri and Qatadah: He who is ever-living and immortal. Similar views have been related from Mujahid, Mamar and Murrat alHamadani also.

Murrat al-Hamadani’s another view is: He who decides whatever He wills and does whatever He wills, without there being anyone to revise his judgment and decision.

Ibrahim Nakhai: He to whom the people turn for fulfillment of their desires.

Abu Bakr al-Anbari: There is no difference of opinion among the lexicographers that samad is the chief who has no superior and to whom the people turn for fulfillment of their desires and needs and in connection with other affairs. Similar to this is the view of Az-Zajjaj, who says Samad is He in whom leadership has been perfected, and to whom one turns for fulfillment of his needs and desires.

Now, let us consider why Allahu-Ahad has been said in the first sentence and why Allah-us-Samad in this sentence. About the word ahad we have explained above that it is exclusively used for Allah, and for none else. That is why it has been used as ahad, in the indefinite sense. But since the word samad is used for creatures also, Allah-us-Samad has been said instead of Allah Samad, which signifies that real and true Samad is Allah alone. If a creature is samad in one sense, it may not be samad in some other sense, for it is mortal, not immortal; it is analyzable and divisible, is compound, its parts can scatter away any time; some creatures are dependent upon it, and upon others it is dependent; its chieftaincy is relative and not absolute; it is superior to certain things and certain other things are superior to it; it can fulfill some desires of some creatures but it is not in the power of any creature to fulfill all the desires of all the creatures, On the contrary, Allah is perfect in His attributes of Samad in every respect; the whole world is dependent upon Him in its needs, but He is not dependent upon anyone; everything in the world turns to Him, consciously or unconsciously, for its survival and for fulfillment of the needs of everyone; He is Immortal and Ever-living; He sustains others and is not sustained by anyone; He is Single and Unique, not compound so as to be analyzable and divisible; His sovereignty prevails over entire universe and He is Supreme in every sense. Therefore, He is not only Samad but As-Samad, i.e. the Only and One Being Who is wholly and perfectly qualified with the attribute of samad in the true sense.

Then, since He is As-Samad, it is necessary that He should be Unique, One and Only, for such a being can only be One, which is not dependent upon anyone and upon whom everyone else is dependent; two or more beings cannot be self-sufficient and fulfillers of the needs of all. Furthermore, His being As-samad also requires that He alone should be the Deity, none else, for no sensible person would worship and serve the one who had no power and authority to fulfill the needs of others.

الاحد

Al-Ahad (The One Only, The Unique One)

This beautiful name of Allah Azzah wa Jall came only in the Surah Al-Ikhlaas verse 1. This surah is a great surah. According to a Hadeeth Shareef, the surah Al-Ikhlaas has such a high level that its  reward is equal to reading one third of the Holy Quraan. This is because this surah states very purely the great Qualities and Tawheed of Allah Ta’ala.

Allah All-Mighty said in the surah Al-Ikhlaas verse one (its English translation is):
(112:1) Say:1 “He is Allah,2 the One and Unique;3

 

Explanatory note of Al-Ahad (note 3)

 

The scholars have explained the sentence Huwa-Allahu Ahad syntactically, but in our opinion its explanation which perfectly corresponds to the context is that Huwa is the subject and Allahu its predicate, and Ahad-un its second predicate. According to this parsing the sentence means: He (about Whom you are questioning me) is Allah, is One and only one. Another meaning can also be, and according to language rules it is not wrong either: He is Allah, the One.

Here, the first thing to be understood is the unusual use of ahad in this sentence. Usually this word is either used in the possessive case as yaum ul-ahad (first day of the week), or to indicate total negative as Ma jaa a-ni ahad-un (No one has come to me), or in common questions like Hal indaka ahadun (Is there anyone with you), or in conditional clauses like Inja-aka ahad-un (If someone comes to you), or in counting as ahad, ithnan, ahad ashar (one, two, eleven). Apart from these uses, there is no precedent in the pre-Quranic Arabic that the mere word ahad might have been used as an adjective for a person or thing. After the revelation of the Quran this word has been used only for the Being of Allah, and for no one else. This extraordinary use by itself shows that being single, unique and matchless is a fundamental attribute of Allah; no one else in the world is qualified with this quality: He is One, He has no equal.

Then, keeping in view the questions that the polytheists and the followers of earlier scriptures asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) about his Lord, let us see how they were answered with ahad-un after Huwa-Allah.

First, it means: He alone is the Sustainer: no one else has any share or part in providence and since He alone can be the Ilah (Deity) Who is Master and Sustainer, therefore, no one else is His associate in Divinity either.

Secondly, it also means He alone is the Creator of the universe: no one else is His associate in this work of creation. He alone is the Master of the universe, the Disposer and Administrator of its system, the Sustainer of His creatures, Helper and Rescuer in times of hardship; no one else has any share or part whatever in the works of Godhead, which as you yourselves acknowledge, are works of Allah.

Thirdly, since they had also asked the questions: Of what is your Lord made? What is His ancestry? What is his sex? From whom has He inherited the world and who will inherit it after Him? All these questions have been answered with one word ahad for Allah. It means:

(1) He alone has been, and will be, God forever; neither was there a God before Him, nor will there be any after Him.

(2) There is no race of gods to which He may belong as a member: He is God, One and Single, and none is homogeneous with Him.

(3) His being is not merely One (waahid) but Ahad, in which there is no tinge of plurality in any way:

He is not a compound being, which may be analyzable or divisible, which may have a form and shape, which may be residing somewhere, or may contain or include something, which may have a color, which may have some limbs, which may have a direction, and which may be variable or changeable in any way. Free from every kind of plurality He alone is a Being who is Ahad in every aspect. (Here, one should fully understand that the word waahid is used in Arabic just like the word one in English. A collection consisting of great pluralities is collectively called waahid or one, as one man, one nation, one country, one world, even one universe, and every separate part of a collection is also called one. But the word Ahad is not used for anyone except Allah. That is why wherever in the Quran the word waahid has been used for Allah, He has been called Ilah waahid (one Deity), or AllahulWahid- al-Qahhar (One Allah Who is Omnipotent), and nowhere just wahid, for this word is also used for the things which contain pluralities of different kinds in their being. On the contrary, for Allah and only for Allah the word Ahad has been used absolutely, for He alone is the Being Who exists without any plurality in any way, Whose Oneness is perfect in every way.

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Allah is Ahad (Single and Unique) in all of His Attributes. For e.g. Allah’s Greatness is unique, His Power, His Rahmaniyyah, His Reward and His punishment, His Karam (Generous Qualiy) and so on.

We must understand that the Tawheed (absolute Oneness and Uniqueness ) of Allah is extremely important belief in which no one should fail.

الواحد

Al-Waahid (The One),

This Attribute means the One. The Arabic word waahid is used for “1”. But after “1” is the long series of numbers that is 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and so on. Allah is the One God, Creator, Lord and Sustainer, is One Being not composed of many components. The Attribute Al-Waahid is followed by the Attribute Al-Ahad which means the One Only, the Unique One. So the number “1” cannot proceed ahead to other numbers. For e.g. if there is one pen then other pens similar to this pen also exist. But saying that Allah is the Waahid and the Ahad means that nothing and no one is like unto Allah so that Allah is the Only One and the Unique One.

The Attribute Al-Waahid came many times in the verses of the Holy Quraan, the translation of some of them is given below.

Surah Al-Zumar (Az-Zumar) verse 4:


4. Had Allah willed to take a son (or offspring or children), He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He created. But glory is to Him! (He is above such things). He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.
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In this verse 4 of the surah Az-Zumar Allah informed us that Allah is the Lord of Glory, is very High above the quality of taking or having a son. Here Allah used the Attribute “Al-Qahhaar (The Irresistible)” after Al-Waahid. Al-Qahhaar is the Attribute from which every one of us must get frightened!!! Therefore, all of us must abstain from making someone to be HIS son. Astaghfirulah!!!

Surah Al-Baqarah verse 163 (Only translation):


(2:163) Your God is One God, there is no god but He; the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate.
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Here after “Ilaahun-W-Waahid” Allah repeated the words “There is no God but HE”.

Surah Yoosuf 39:

(12:39) Fellow-prisoners! Is it better that there be diverse lords, or just Allah, the One, the Irresistible?
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This verse 12;39 tells us about the preaching of Yoosuf alaihi salaam to some prisoners while He was imprisoned by Zulekhaa because she failed to lead Him astray!! The Prophet Yoosuf (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) invited His fellow prisoners to Tawheed (the Absolute Oneness of God Allah.). Here also Al-Waahid is followed by the Al-Qahhaar (the Irresistible).

Surah Saad, verse 65:


(38:65) Tell them, (O Prophet):56 “I am nothing but a warner.57 There is no deity but Allah, the One, the Supreme,

Another translation of the verse 65 of the Surah Saad is:


65. Say (O Muhammad SAW): “I am only a warner and there is no Ilah (God) except Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) the One, the Irresistible,
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We see repeatedly that the attribute “Al-Waahid” is followed by Al-Qahhaar (The irresistible). So we must note the emphasis on the Tawheed of Allah. Allah is ONE in HIS Person, ONE in HIS Attributes and ONE in HIS FUNCTIONS. There is no place for associating any partner with Allah. Associating any partner with Allah is called shirk (polytheism). Shirk is a horrible sin for which there is no forgiveness in the Here-After!!!

Allah said in the following verses (here is the translation only):

Surah Al-Nisaa (An-Nisaa) verse 171:


(4:171) O People of the Book! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and attribute to Allah nothing except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of Allah, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and in His Messengers, and do not say: (Allah is a) trinity. Give up this assertion; it would be better for you. Allah is indeed just one God. Far is it from His glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. Allah is sufficient for a guardian.

Surah Al-Ma’idah 73:

(5:73) Those who said: ‘Allah is one of the Three’, certainly they disbelieved, for there is no god save the One God. And if they do not give up this claim, all who have disbelieved among them shall be subjected to painful chastisement. 
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People of the Book means Christians and Jews. We all must believe in the Al-Waahid, Al-Ahad attributes i.e. Tawheed of Allah with our hearts /minds, testify with our tongues and prove it with our actions

الماجد

Al-Maajid (The Glorious One)

I couldn’t find details of this Attribute of Allah in the books and on you tube. The only things that I found are:

This Attribute Al-Maajid is related to Al-Majeed (The Glorious, the Majestic One), and it is derived from the same root-word “majd” which means to glorify, to exalt, Glory, Honor, Distinction, Beneficent etc. (dictionary meanings). Then Al-Maajid means the Glorified One, the Majestic One —.

The name Al-Majeed is already explained. Allah’s names Ghaafir, Al-Ghafoor and Al-Ghaffaar have similar meaning and that is “The Forgiving One”. Their difference is known to Allah only. Similarly, Al-Maajid and Al-Majeed seem to be derived from the same root word but their difference is known only to Allah. May Allah forgive us all because our knowledge about Allah’s Attributes is very limited. For details you can read the Attribute Al-Majeed in this thread.