Month: October 2019

التواب

Al-Tawwaab Pronounced as At-Tawwaab

(The Ever-Pardoning, Ever Relenting)

It means The Oft-Returning, The Guide to repentance, and the Accepter of repentance. The word is related to the word “tawbah” which means repentance. When a person repents to Allah, he (the person) seeks Allah’s forgiveness and turns back from his sins to the obedience of Allah. Allah is At-Tawwaab in the sense that Allah will turn with Mercy to the sinner servant and will make him (guide him to) do tawbah from his sins. The following verse points to this meaning of the Attribute:
Surah Al-Tawbah (At-Tawbah) verse 118 (English translation only);

[9:118] And He also relented towards the three whose cases had been deferred.118 When the earth, in spite of all its spaciousness, became constrained to them, and their own beings became a burden to them, and they realized that there was no refuge for them from Allah except in Him; He relented towards them that they may turn back to Him. Surely, it is Allah Who is the Accepting of repentance, the Ever Merciful.119
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(This verse of the surah Al-Tawbah was revealed concerning three of the true believers who stayed behind, without just cause, from going to the Battle of Tabuk. So Allah Azza wa Jall ordered the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) and His Companions rAa not to have any social relations with them. When they reached a state of utter despair, Allah Azza wa Jall revealed this verse and the companions ran to them in pleasure, saying congratulation to them because Allah Azza wa Jall had accepted their repentance. You can read their story in the exp. notes of this verse at tafheem.net)

When the servant seeks Allah’s Forgiveness by making tawbah then Allah turns to him with Mercy to forgive him.

This Attribute of Allah came in many verses of the Holy Quraan. For e.g. Allah said in the verse 37 of surah Al-Baqarah (its English translation is ):

37. Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord Turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
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Another translation of the same verse is:

(2:37) Thereupon Adam learned from his Lord some words and repented51 and his Lord accepted his repentance for He is Much-Relenting, Most Compassionate.52
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Exp. notes 51—52:

51. This means that when Adam became conscious of his act of sin and wanted to return from his state of disobedience to that of obedience, and when he tried to seek remission for his sin from God, he was unable to find the words to use in his prayer to God. In His Mercy God taught him the words with which he could pray.

The word tawbah basically denotes ‘to come back, to turn towards someone’. Tawbah, on the part of man, signifies that he has given up his attitude of disobedience and has returned to submission and obedience to God. The same word used in respect of God means that He has mercifully turned towards His repentant servant so that the latter has once more become an object of His compassionate attention.

52. The Qur’an refutes the doctrine that certain consequences necessarily follow from sins and that man must in all cases bear them. In fact this is one of the most misleading doctrines to have been invented by human imagination. If it were true it would mean that a sinner would never have the opportunity to have his repentance accepted. It is a mechanistic view of reward and punishment and thus prevents and discourages the sinner from trying to improve.

The Qur’an, on the contrary, tells man that reward for good actions and punishment for bad ones rests entirely with God. The reward that one receives for good acts is not the natural consequence of those acts; it is rather due to the grace and benevolence of God and it is entirely up to Him to reward one or not. Likewise, punishment for evil deeds is not a natural and unalterable consequence of man’s acts. God has full authority to punish man for his sin as well as to pardon him.

God’s grace and mercy, however, are interrelated with His wisdom. Since He is wise, He does not use His power arbitrarily. Hence, whenever God rewards a man for his good acts, He does so because the good was done with purity of intention and for the sake of pleasing God. And if God refuses to accept an act of apparent goodness, He does so because that act had merely the form or appearance of goodness, and was not motivated by the desire to please God.

In the same way God punishes man for those sins which he commits with rebellious boldness, and which stimulates his appetite for more rather than lead him to repentance. Similarly, in His mercy God pardons those sins which are followed by genuine repentance and readiness on the part of the sinner to reform himself. There is no need for the criminal to despair of God’s grace and mercy, no matter how great a criminal he is. Nor is there any reason for even the most rabid disbeliever to despair, provided he recognizes his error, repents of his disobedience and is ready to replace his former disobedience with obedience.

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Allah Azza wa Jall said in surah Al-Shura (Ash-Shurah) verse 25 (its English translation is):

25. He is the One that accepts repentance from His Servants and forgives sins: and He knows all that ye do.
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Thus when we repent to Allah and say astaghfaar Allah Azza wa Jall accepts our tawbah and astaghfaar.

About the Al-Tawwaab (At-Tawwaab) Attribute here is a hadeeth Al-Qudsee:

 قال الله عزوجل : يا ابن آدم ، إنك ما دعوتني ورجوتني غفرت لك ما كان منك ولا أبالي ، يا ابن آدم ، لو بلغت ذنوبك عنان السماء ، ثم استغفرتني غفرت لك ، يا ابن آدم ، إنك لو أتيتني بقراب الأرض خطايا ، ثم لقيتني لا تشرك بي شيئا ، لأتيتك بقرابها مغفرة

 رواه الترمذي وقال : حديث حسن صحيح .

Translation:

Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Allah, the Exalted, has said: ‘O son of adam, I forgive you as long as you pray to Me and hope for My forgiveness, whatever sins you have committed. O son of ‘Adam, I do not care if your sins reach the height of the heaven, then you ask for my forgiveness, I would forgive you. O son of ‘Adam, if you come to Me with an earth load of sins, and meet Me associating nothing to Me, I would match it with an earth-load of forgiveness.”‘

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Due to this Attribute At-Tawwaab, Allah will forgive the sins of a servant when he repents to Allah and prays for Maghfirah (forgiveness) by saying Astaghfaar, or Astaghfirullah, or Astaghfirullahil-Azeem laa ilaaha illa huwa Al-Hayyul-Qayyoom wa atoobu ilayhi.

We must say these words for repentance frequently because in every day there are special times when du’aa is accepted.

We must say these words at early morning when 2/3rd of the night has passed because at that time Allah Azza wa Jall comes to the worldly heaven to accept the du’aa and tawbah of those who request Allah at that time.

We must remember a few important points about tawbah. These are:

1. If a Muslim has hurt someone then his mere words of tawbah will not be accepted until he/she is forgiven by that someone.

2. If a Muslim has deprived someone of his right or has unlawfully taken the wealth or property of someone, his tawbah will not be accepted until he pays back someone’s right / wealth /property or when that someone forgives him.

3. If that someone whose backbiting was done has passed away, then the sinner must do some virtues /good deeds etc. and pray to Allah to send the reward to that person if he was a Muslim. He can return his wealth or property to his children.

4. The gate of tawbah remains open until a person has not seen the angel of death.

5. Also the gate of tawbah will close, in general, to all people after the sun rises from the west. If a person has not repented from his sins until that time (rising of the sun from the west) or if he/she remains unbeliever until that time, then his/ her tawbah or faith will not be accepted.

6. So we must always do tawbah and astaghfirullah and should never be hopeless of the mercy of Allah Azza wa Jall. We must always be careful about the feelings, honor, rights, and property of others. We must try to protect ourselves from gheebah and nameemah (i.e. backbiting etc.).

البر

  • Al-Barr (The Doer of Virtue and The Source of Piety)

This Attribute of Allah came in the verse 28 of Al-Toor (At-Tur). Its English translation is:


  1. “Verily, We used to invoke Him (Alone and none else) before. Verily, He is Al-Barr (the Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous), the Most Merciful.”
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    This will be the saying of the people in Paradise. To understand the above verse you should read the verses from 17 to 27 before it.
    The Name Al-Barr has very vast meaning which indicate the Excellent virtues of Allah Azza wa Jall to us, the servants. So Allah Ta’aala bestows a lot of blessings on the servants. Allah is the Mawla of blessings, providing vastly forever even without the asking of the servants. There is no limit of the Kindness and generosity of Allah Azza wa Jall.

    Allah’s virtues to HIS servants are of two types:

    1. General, 2. Special.


    1. General Virtues:

    These are for all of the mankind in common. Allah Azza wa Jall said in surah Al-Israa (surah Bani-Israa-eel) verse 70:


    70. We have honoured the children of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation.
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Another translation of the same verse along with its explanation is given below:


(17:70) Indeed, We honoured the progeny of Adam, and bore them across land and sea and provided them with good things for their sustenance, and exalted them above many of Our creatures.85
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Exp. note 85:

85. That is, it is an obvious fact that the superiority man enjoys over all other beings on the earth and all that is in it, has not been bestowed upon him by a jinn or an angel or a prophet. Most surely that is Allah’s blessing and favor. Is it not then the height of folly and ignorance that after having achieved such a high rank, man should bow down before any creature of Allah instead of Him?

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And this honor given to mankind is in the beauty of his/her shape, body, clean and pious moral sense, and his/her ability to see, hear and think. He/she stands and walks upright on his/her legs and feet and eats with hand while animals eat with their mouth and walk on four limbs.

Allah has given numerous blessing to all man-kind in the form of different kind of foods as vegetables, fruits, meats etc. There are other numerous blessings as Allah Azza wa Jall said:

Wa in ta-uddu naimat-Allahi laa tuhsooha (If you start to count the blessing of Allah, you will not be able to count them).

2. Special virtues:
Allah gives guidance of HIS Deen Islam, and the ability to follow this Deen to whomever Allah wills and then gives success to the obedient servants here and in the Hereafter. So there are three places of the success of the obedient servants, those are:

1. Here in this world,

2. In the grave (Aalami-Barzakh),

3. In the Hereafter in Paradise.

Allah Azza wa Jall said in surah Al-Infitaar 13:

13. Verily, the Abrar (pious and righteous) will be in delight (Paradise);
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So in the Hereafter Allah Azza wa Jall will give more reward for our good deeds. According to a hadeeth shareef, the reward of one good deed is ten times to 700 times, while for making a sin the punishment shall be equal to the sinful deed.

This is also due to the Al-Barr Attribute of Allah Azza wa Jall that Allah forgives the sins of a sinner when he /she repents to Allah. Allah said in the verse 53 of surah Al-Zumar (Az-Zumar):

53. Say, “O My servants who have transgressed against themselves [by sinning], do not despair of the Mercy of Allah. Indeed, Allah forgives all sins. Indeed, it is He who is the Forgiving, the Merciful.”
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Like the verse (mentioned above) there are many ahadeeth shareef which encourage us on repentance. (This is because Allah wants people get saved from the Hell-Fire). But in case a sinner becomes proud and insists on making sins, particularly the sin of polytheism, then Allah’s punishments are also unique and everlasting. So we must stay humble before our Kind Lord Allah Azza wa Jall).

There is a Hadeeth Shareef in Muslim from Anas Bin Maalik rAa. He says:

((The Messenger of Allah said: “When a servant of Allah repents to Allah from his sins the Pleasure of Allah on his repentance is more than the one of you who was riding his camel in a desert when his camel disappeared (lost) from him. His food and drink (water) was on the camel. He couldn’t find it and became hopeless. Then he came to a tree and lay down in its shade hopeless from his camel. Meanwhile he saw his camel standing near him —-. The pleasure that he experienced, Allah’s Pleasure on the repentance of someone of you is more than his pleasure.”))      (Muslim)

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We must also know that Allah Al-Barr wants us to do birr (good, kindness, virtues) to others. So our hearts will be made closer to Allah as much as we do good deeds. Allah loves virtuous deeds. The following verse gives a summary of the virtuous deeds that we are ordered to do.

Surah Al-Baqarah verse 177:


(2:177) Righteousness does not consist in turning your faces towards the east or towards the west;175 true righteousness consists in believing in Allah and the Last Day, the angels, the Book and the Prophets, and in giving away one’s wealth in love of Him to one’s kinsmen, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarer, and to those who ask for help, and in freeing the necks of slaves, and in establishing Prayer and dispensing the Zakah. True righteousness is attained by those who are faithful to their promise once they have made it and by those who remain steadfast in adversity and affliction and at the time of battle (between Truth and falsehood). Such are the truthful ones; such are the God-fearing.
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Exp. note 175:

175. Turning one’s face towards the east or the west is mentioned here only by way of illustration. The actual purpose of the verse is to emphasize that the observance of certain outward religious rites, the performance of certain formal religious acts out of conformism, and the manifestation of certain familiar forms of piety do not constitute that essential righteousness which alone carries weight with God and earns His recognition and approval.

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المتعالي

Al-Muta’aalee (The most High, The Self-Exalted)
This name comes from the word uluw which means very high. The dictionary meanings of this word “Uluw” include highness, loftiness and supreme. Another Attribute of the same meaning is Al-Ali which is present here. It should be read for more information. Al-Muta’aal is the more exaggerated form of Highness. Allah Azza wa Jall said in the surah Al-Ra’d (Ar-Ra’d) verse 9 (here only the English translation is given):


9. He is the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, the Great, the High Exalted.
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A hadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) says:

“Anta Al-Zaahir falesa fawqaka she’ ( YOU are the Manifest, the Most High so there is nothing above YOU. Wa anta Al-Baatin falesa doonaka she’ (and YOU are the Most Hidden so there is nothing beyond YOU)”.

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“There is nothing above YOU” literally means like physically there is none above YOU. But it also means that Allah is much much High than our capacity to understand Allah’s Highness!!! Therefore, we, Muslims, use the names Allah Azza wa Jall, Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala and Allah Ta’aala.


Azza
 is from Azeez and it means the Owner of Dignity and Might.

Jall
 means the One Who has all the Awe-Inspiring Attributes.

Subhaanahu
 means HE has no fault or defect. And Ta’ala means the Most High, the Exalted.

So Allah is the Al-Kabeerul Muta’aal i.e. very High beyond our capacity to understand. Here the important point is that we must be careful from thinking of any shape or form or place for Allah All-Mighty. Allah Ta’aala and HIS Throne are beyond our understanding. We should not imagine Allah Azza wa Jall to be sitting on HIS Throne (We seek the refuge of Allah from such imaginations). Although Allah has the Throne but only Allah knows best about HIMSELF and HIS Throne. Allah is above the Throne while His Knowledge encompasses each and every place. So we can say that Allah Ta’aala is very High and the Most High, in whichever way Allah Ta’aala has made it befitting for HIMSELF.

الوالي

Al-Waalee

( The Patron, The Governer, The Defender)

Allah Azzah wa Jall governs all affairs. A verse of the Holy Quraan will better explain it.
Surah Al-Ra’d (pronounced as Ar-Ra’d) verse 11

(13:11).For each one are successive [angels] before and behind him who protect him by the decree of Allah. Indeed, Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves. And when Allah intends for a people ill, there is no repelling it. And there is not for them besides Him any defender. 

Another translation of the same verse is:

(13:11) There are guardians over everyone, both before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah’s command.18 Verily Allah does not change a people’s condition unless they change their inner selves. And when Allah decides to make a people suffer punishment, no one can avert it. Nor can any be of help to such a people against Allah.19
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Exp. note 18 and 19:

18. That is, Allah not only directly watches over whatever each person does, and is fully aware of everything he does, but He has also appointed such guardians as accompany him everywhere and keep a full record of all his deeds. This has been stated here to warn those people who live their lives under the delusion that they have been left absolutely free to do whatever they like and shall not be required to render an account of what they did in this worldly life. The warning is that such people invite their own retribution.

19. This is to warn them further that they should not remain under any delusion that some holy person or saint or angel has the power to rescue them from divine retribution, for there is none who could defend them against Allah, even though they might have been paying homage and making offerings to their so called patrons and protectors in the hope that they would rescue them from punishment from Allah on the Day of Judgment.
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Also Allah All-Mighty said in the same surah in verse 8:


(13:8) Allah knows what every female bears; and what the wombs fall short of (in gestation), and what they may add.17 With Him everything is in a fixed measure.
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Exp note 17:

17. When amplified the verse will mean: Allah remains fully aware of all the developments that take place in the child while in its mother’s womb and He watches over the decrease or increase in each of its limbs, and its potentialities, capabilities and powers.
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Thus Allah governs all affairs of everyone and everything in the Universe. We have got very little understanding of the Attributes of Allah. But Know: that Allah is very Great.

The Names Al-Wali and Al-Waalee are derived from the same root word waw, laam and ya. Therefore the sholars mix up the meaning and explanation of the two names “Al-Walee and Al-Waalee”. These are also written as Al-Wali and Al-Waali but I think “ee” in the end of both of these names is more correct.

The dictionary meanings of the two names are also somewhat similar, as you can see here:

Waal (Al-Waali) = Ruler, Governer.

Waali = Naasir = to support, back up, stand by.

Wali ala = to manage, rule.

Wali = guardian, caretaker.

Wali = Naseer = Patron, supporter, protector, defender.

So you can read the name Al-Wali. Regarding the support of Allah to Allah’s friends (Awliya-Allah), you can read the verses 30—-32 of the surah Fussilat (Ha-Meem) given here along with their explanation from tafheem.net

30. In the case of those who say, “Our Lord is Allah”, and, further, stand straight and steadfast, the angels descend on them (from time to time): “Fear ye not!” (they suggest), “Nor grieve! but receive the Glad Tidings of the Garden (of Bliss), the which ye were promised!

31. “We are your protectors in this life and in the Hereafter: therein shall ye have all that your souls shall desire; therein shall ye have all that ye ask for!-

32. “A hospitable gift from the One Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful!”

Another translation of the same 3 verses is:

(41:30) Those32 who say “Allah is our Lord” and then remain steadfast,33 upon them descend angels34 (and say): “Do not fear nor grieve,35and receive good tidings of Paradise which you were promised.
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Exp. Notes 32—35:

32. After warning the disbelievers of the consequences of their opposition to the truth and their stubbornness, the address now turns to the believers and the Prophet (peace be upon him).

33. That is, they did not call Allah their Lord merely incidentally, nor were they involved in the error to regard Allah as their Lord and at the same time others as well as their lords, but they embraced the faith sincerely and stood by it steadfastly: neither adopted a creed contrary to it later nor mixed it up with a false creed, but they fulfilled the demands of the doctrine of Tauhid in their practical lives as well.

“Then remain upright” has been explained by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the eminent companions thus:

Anas has reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Many people called Allah their Lord, but most of them became disbelievers. Firm and steadfast is he who remained firm on this creed till his death. (Ibn Jarir, Nasai, Ibn Abi Hatim).

Abu Bakr Siddiq has explained it thus: Then he did not associate another with Allah: did not attend to any other deity beside Him. (Ibn Jarir).

Umar once recited this verse on the pulpit and said: By God, the steadfast are those who remained firm on obedience to Allah: did not run about from place to place like foxes. (Ibn Jarir).

Uthman says: Performed his deeds sincerely for the sake of Allah only. (Kashshaf).

Ali says: Performed the duties enjoined by Allah faithfully and obediently. (Kashshaf).

34. It is not necessary that the coming down of the angels may be perceptible, and the believers may see them with the eyes, or hear their voices with the ears. Although Allah also sends the angels openly for whomever He wills, generally their coming down for the believers, especially in hard times when they are being persecuted by the enemies of the truth, takes place in imperceptible ways and their voices penetrate into the depths of the heart as peace and tranquility instead of just striking the ear-drums. Some commentators have regarded this coming down of the angels as restricted to the time of death or grave, or the Plain of Resurrection. But if the conditions in which these verses were sent down are kept in view, there remains no doubt that the real object of stating this thing here is to mention the coming down of the angels on those who struggle with their lives in this world in the cause of the truth, so that they are consoled and encouraged and they rest assured that they are not helpless but the angels of Allah are at their back. Although the angels also come to receive the believers at the time of death and they also welcome them in the grave (in the state of burzakh), and they will also accompany them constantly on the Day of Resurrection, from the time Resurrection takes place till their entry into Paradise, yet their company is not particularly restricted to the Hereafter but remains available in this world also. The context clearly shows that in the conflict between the truth and falsehood just as the worshipers of falsehood are accompanied by the devils and mischievous people, so are the believers accompanied by the angels. On the one hand, the companions of the worshipers of falsehood show their misdeeds seem fair to them and assure them that the tyrannical and dishonest acts that they are committing are the very means of their success and through them only will their leadership and dominance remain safe in the world. On the other hand, the angels come down to the worshipers of the truth and give them the message that is being mentioned in the following sentences.

35. These are very comprehensive words, which contain a new theme of consolation and peace for the believers, in every stage of life, from the world till the Hereafter. This counsel of the angels in this world means: No matter how strong and powerful be the forces of falsehood, you should not be afraid of them, and whatever hardships and deprivations you may have to experience on account of your love of the truth, you should not grieve on account of them, for ahead there lie in store for you such things against which every blessing of the world is insignificant. When the angels say the same words at the time of death, they mean this: There is no cause of fear for you in the destination you are heading for, for Paradise awaits you there, and you have no cause of grief for those whom you are leaving behind in the world, for we are your guardians and companions here. When the angels will say these very words in the intermediary state between death and Resurrection and in the Plain of Resurrection, they will mean: Here, there is nothing but peace for you. Do not grieve for the hardships you had to suffer in the world, and do not fear what you are going to face in the Hereafter, for we are giving you the good news of Paradise, which used to be promised to you in the world.
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2nd translation of the remaining two verses:

(41:31) We are your companions in this world and in the Hereafter. There you shall have all that you desire and all what you will ask for.

(41:32) This is by way of hospitality from Him Who is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.” 
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These last verses are already explained in the above exp. notes.

الأول , الآخر, الظاهر, الباطن

Al-Awwal, Al-Aakhir, Al-Zaahir (pronounced as Az-Zaahir), Al-Baatin

 

Al-Awwal (The First )
Al-Aakhir (The Last )
Al-Zaahir pronounced as Az-Zaahir (The Manifest One, The Evident )
Al-Baatin (The Hidden One)

All of these four names came together in one aayah and that is the verse 3 of surah Al-Hadeed. Its English translation is:

Surah Al-Hadeed 3 (translation only):


(57:3) He is the First and the Last, and the Manifest and the Hidden,3 and He has knowledge of everything
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Exp.note 3 of the surah Al-Hadeed on tafheem.net:

3. That is, when there was nothing, He was, and when there will be nothing, He will be. He is the most Manifest of all the manifests, for whatever manifests itself in the world, does so only by His attributes and His works and His light. And He is the Most Hidden of all the hidden, for not only do the senses fail to perceive Him but the intellect and thought and imagination also cannot attain to His essence and reality. The best commentary in this regard is a supplication of the Prophet (peace be upon him) which Imam Ahmad, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Baihaqi have related on the authority of Abu Hurairah, and Hafiz Abu Yala Mosuli in his Musnad on the authority of Aishah rAa:

Antal Awwal, fa-laisa qablaka shaiin; wa Antal Akhir falaisa ba’ daka shaiin; wa Antal Zahir,fa-laisa fauqaka shai in; wa Antal Batin, fa laisa dunaka shaiin. You alone are the First; none is before You; You alone are the Last: none is after You; You alone are the Manifest; none is above You; You alone are the Hidden: none is more hidden than You.

Here, the question arises: How does this accord with the immortality and eternal life of the dwellers of Paradise and Hell mentioned in the Quran when Allah alone is the Last and Eternal? Its answer has been provided by the Quran itself: Everything is perishable except Allah Himself. (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 88). In other words no creature is immortal in its personal capacity; if a thing exists or continuous to exist, it does so because Allah keeps it so, and can exist only by His letting it exist; otherwise in its own capacity everything is perishable except Allah. Immortality in Heaven and Hell will not be bestowed upon somebody because he is immortal by himself, but because Allah will grant him eternal life. The same is true of the angels, they are not immortal by themselves. When Allah willed they came into existence, and will continue to exist only as long as He wills.

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Al-Qasas 88:


88. And do not invoke with Allah another deity. There is no deity except Him. Everything will be destroyed except His Face. His is the judgement, and to Him you will be returned.
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Also Allah said in the surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verse 26 and 27:


26. Every one upon the earth will perish,

27. And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.

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In the comprehensive meaning of these names comes that The Rabb Tabaarak wa Ta’ala encompasses the whole creation and that encompassing is zammniyyah wa makaaniyyah i.e. space related and time related. So Allah was before everyone and everything and shall exist and remain after the end of everyone and everything. Allah has been present since ever and shall exist for ever. From the beginning to the end of the creation/ universe everything and everyone is in Allah’s control. That is the time related encompassing.

As for the space related encompassing Allah encompasses everything on its open side as well as its hidden aspects. So Allah is upon everything which is manifest and whatever is hidden Allah is more hidden than that. As the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said: “ wa anta Al- Zaahir fa lesa fawqaka she-in wa anta Al-Baatin fa lesa doonaka she-in. So in HIS Appearance Allah is Higher than all, HIS Throne is above the seven heavens and Allah is above the Thrown. At the same time Allah is so much hidden that none of the eyes can see HIM. Although Allah is so much High but is wonderfully near everything and every creature. Allah said in surah Qaaf verse 16:

Surah Qaaf verse 16 (English translation):


16. And indeed We have created man, and We know what his own self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.
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As Allah is Al-Baatin (The Hidden) and is so near to each and every one, no secret of mankind can remain hidden from HIM. HE (Allah) is extremely near every being with HIS Knowledge and Power and knows every state, internal and external of each creature and controls it in the way HE likes!!!

Now when the Scientific developments have happened, some of the scientists dealing with the DNA and genes of mankind were struck with wonder because they found inside the cell nucleus numerous commands for the formation of different types of body proteins!!! They were in a state of fear due to the GREATNESS of the Creator, Who has given such wise Commands to the DNA for great functions like the manufacture of proteins. They admitted and declared that a Great Wise Creator exists and that Evolution theory is false and is without any scientific bases!!!

When a person gets the knowledge of these four names, then he/she must become very humble before the Almighty God (Allah) and must pay thanks to HIM. He /she must worship only Allah and at difficult times must call only Allah. Also he/she must trust Allah because only Allah can fulfill our needs, can help us in our difficult times, and can remove trouble from us; and also because we are on our way to return to Allah and to appear in HIS Court.

These four names of Allah collectively help us to get acquainted about Allah and Allah’s worship. These are also enough to suppress and crush the waswasa (bad ideas from Satans). According to a Hadeeth in the Sunan Abi Da’wood, narrated by Abi Zumeel Samaak bin Al-Waleed; he asked about a bad waswasa in his heart. Ibn Abbaas rAa told him that if he found something in his heart/mind, he should say:

هو الأول و الآخر و الظاهر والباطن, وهو بكل شىئ عليم

(Surah Al-Hadeed verse 3)

Its meaning is:

3. He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Hidden: and He has full knowledge of all things.
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Thus Ibn Abbaas told the solution for waswasa. Waswasah is suppressed and crushed by reciting this verse, we must trust Allah and get rid of waswasah.

المقدم , المؤخر

Al-Muqaddim [The Expediter (He who brings forward)]

 Al-Mu’akhkhir [The Delayer (He who brings backwards)]

 
These two Attributes of Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala came in some authentic ahadeeth of the Final Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him).
Abu Musa Al-Ashari said that the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to make du’aa as:

Allahumm-aghfirlee khatee-atee wa jahlee, Wa israafee fee amree, wa ma anta a’lamu bihee minnee, Allahumm-aghfirlee jiddee wa hazlee, wa khat-ee wa amdee, wa kullu dhalika indee, Allahumm-aghfirlee ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu, wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu, wa ma anta a’lamu bihee minnee, anta Al-Muqaddim wa anta Al-Mu-akhkhir, wa anta ala kulli shey-in Qadeer.
(Al-Bukhaari wa Muslim)

ورد في الحديث الصحيح، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه كان يدعو بين التشهد والتسليم
ويقول: ((اللهم اغفر لي ما قدمت، وما أخرت وما أسررت، وما أعلنت، وما أسرفت، وما أنت أعلم به مني. أنت المقدم وأنت المؤخر لا إله إلا أنت))

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) , while praying tahajjad used to say the following du’aa

اللهم لك الحمد أنت قيم السموات والأرض و من فيهن و لك الحمد انت ملك السموات والارض ومن فيهن و لك الحمد وانت رب السموات والارض ومن فيهن, و لك الحمد و انت نور السموات والارض و من فيهن انت الحق و قولك الحق و وعدك الحق ولقاؤك حق والساعة حق والجنة حق و النار حق والنبيون حق و محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم حق, اللهم لك اسلمت و بك امنت و عليك توكلت وإليك أنبت وبك خاصمت وإليك حاكمت فاغفرلي ما قدمت وما أخرت وما اسررت وما أعلنت أنت المقدم و أنت المؤخر لا إله إلا أنت أو لا إله غيرك

 

These ahadeeth have very important du’aas. Therefore saying these du’aas in Arabic will be very good for you. You can find their translation on the net.

These two attributes of Allah come together and this is only the Power of Allah All-Mighty to expedite or delay whatever HE wills. And these are the proof of the Ability of Allah to establish HIS Commands with HIS Absolute Wisdom! Allah expedites some of the creation and delays others in their persons, their functions and in their qualities!!!

In the universe, some of the creations are made ahead of others in their strength, speed, usefulness etc. Causes and conditions are made former to the results, and all of these are done according to a fixed measure and proportion. Among human beings, concerning the Deen of Islam, the Prophets (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon them) are made to be the foremost. Also some of them are made superior to others about which only Allah knows, we are ordered to abstain from making any difference among them. Also Allah made some of the Muslims higher than others in the rank of righteousness. Some of the Muslims have more knowledge, stronger Faith, better character and other good qualities. All such expediting or delaying is according to the Wisdom and Justice of Allah.

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to pray to Allah for the forgiveness of all sins as he (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to say:

 

“Allahumm-aghfirlee (Ya Allah, may YOU forgive me) ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu (the sins that I did before or later) wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu (and what I did in hidden and that which I did in the open)”. So we also must pray like the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) as He came to teach us by the Command of Allah. The Prophets alaihim salaam used to be very innocent although they were human beings and thus mistakes were possible from them. But the real sinners are we. So we need these du’aas much more. We must hope the Mercy of Allah and should never be hopeless but we must try to protect ourselves from making sins and we shouldn’t feel fearless of the Plans of Allah.

Allah said in surah Al-A’raaf verses 97—:

97. Did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our wrath by night while they were asleep?

98. Or are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them in the daytime while they play?

99. Did they then feel secure against the plan of Allah?- but no one can feel secure from the Plan of Allah, except those (doomed) to ruin!

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