Month: October 2019


Al-Muqsit (The Equitable One, The One Who is Just and Fair)

The meanings of Al-Adal and Al-Muqsit are almost similar. You should read the post # 35 (Al-Adal) in this thread to get some more information of the Justice of Allah Ta’aala. Al-Adal is an attribute of Allah which informs us about Allah’s Justice here and in the Here-after.

Al-Muqsit also means the Just One and the One Who gives everyone his /her portion of justice.

Qist means justice, Fairness.

Allah Azza wa jall said in surah Yoonus verse 54 (its English translation is):

54. And if every person who had wronged (by disbelieving in Allah and by worshipping others besides Allah), possessed all that is on earth, and sought to ransom himself therewith (it will not be accepted), and they would feel in their hearts regret when they see the torment, and they will be judged with justice, and no wrong will be done unto them.
As we can see in this verse that the punishments in the Here-after are so much painful that the criminals will wish to escape it even if it was by ransoming himself / herself with the wealth and property equal to the whole world! But it will not be possible to rescue oneself from it when he / she is caught due to his / her own sins. Allah’s Justice is very pure. No injustice will be done to anyone! They shall regret but in vain! May Allah Ta’aala protect us, aameen!

Allah’s principles have no injustice. So all people who will be admitted to Hell will be due to the pure Justice of Allah Azza wa Jall and all those admitted to Paradise will be due to the Mercy of Allah Ta’aala!

There everyone will be fully satisfied with the judgment and no one will complain against it. There, everyone will see the truth proven and that he / she was on fault and no injustice is done to them. The criminals will weep and request that they should be sent back to this world and be given another chance, then they would not disobelieve again. But no other chance will be given. See the translation of verse 12 of the surah Al-Sajdah (As-Sajdah):

12. And if you only could see when the Mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) shall hang their heads before their Lord (saying): “Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back (to the world), we will do righteous good deeds. Verily! We now believe with certainty.”

The answer comes in the verse 14 of the same surah Al-Sajdah (As-Sajdah):

14. Then taste you (the torment of the Fire) because of your forgetting the Meeting of this Day of yours, (and) surely! We too will forget you, so taste you the abiding torment for what you used to do.

According to hadeeth shareef, Allah divided HIS Mercy into 100 parts. Allah Azza wa Jall gave only one part from that Mercy to the whole world and kept 99 parts for the Day of Judgment! Now all mercy found in this world [like the mercy of all mothers for their children, even all animals (except snake) have great mercy for their young ones], comes from 1% Mercy of Allah All-Mighty. In the Here-after all of the 99% Mercy will be for the believers (Muslims) only. For the unbelievers there shall be no mercy in the Here-after. They will be dealt with adal / qist (justice) from Allah and they will never come out from the ever-lasting Hell!

All Muslims shall be in need of the mercy of Allah Taa’ala to enter Paradise because their marks (darajaat) will not reach the passing standard. Then Allah Ta’ala will add from HIS mercy to pass them and admit them to Paradise. (May Allah Azza wa Jall make us from them, aameen). To get the Mercy of Allah we must remember the following verse 156 of the surah Al-A’raaf:

Surah Al-A’raaf verses 155—-156 (Translation only):

155. And Musa (Moses) chose out of his people seventy (of the best) men for Our appointed time and place of meeting, and when they were seized with a violent earthquake, he said: “O my Lord, if it had been Your Will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish ones among us? It is only Your Trial by which You lead astray whom You will, and keep guided whom You will. You are our Wali (Protector), so forgive us and have Mercy on us, for You are the Best of those who forgive.

156. And decree for us in this world [that which is] good and [also] in the Hereafter; indeed, we have turned back to You.” [ Allah ] said, “My punishment – I afflict with it whom I will, but My mercy encompasses all things.” So I will decree it [especially] for those who fear Me and give zakah and those who believe in Our verses –


The verse 156 tells about the mercy of Allah Azza wa Jall that Allah will decree it for three types of people (Muslims): 1. Those who fear Allah Ta’aala, 2. Those who pay the obligatory charity, 3. Those who believe in Allah’s verses.

Thus we must try to get the mercy of Allah Ta’aala on the Day of Judgment by obeying in this world all of these Commands of Allah. Remember that those who do not make prayer (salaat) 5 times every day regularly, are excluded from Islam.

(Note. Verse 155 (above) is included here for your understanding the verse 156.)

ذو الجلال و الإكرام

Dhu-al-Jalaali wa Al-Ikraam

(The Lord of Majesty and Bounty)

This beautiful name ofAllah came in surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verses 27 and 78, their translation is:

26. Whatsoever is on (the earth) will perish.
27. And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.

78. Blessed is the name of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.

hadeeth of Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam in Al-Masnad, narrated by Rabee’ah bin Aamir rAa says that he heard Him salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam saying: “Ask du’aa with ya Dhu-al-Jalaali wa Al-Ikraam”. The Hadeeth in Arabic says “Alazzoo” (ألظوا (, which means make it essential/obligatory to say this name frequently and ask du’aa by it. (Allah knows best the words of Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam).
This name is a combination of two attributes i.e. Jalaal and Ikraam. Dhu means “the owner of”.

Jalaal: loftiness, sublimity, magnificence, grandeur.

Ijlaal: very deep respect, feeling of awe, reverence.

Ikraam: honor, respect, exalt, dignity, generosity (all of these meanings at the highest level).
These are the dictionary meanings of the words.

There are other combinations/ increased forms of the names of Allah Azza wa Jall like: Arham-ar-Raahimeen, Kher-ul-Ghaafireen, Rabb-ul-A’alameen, Maalik-i-Yawmiddeen, Ahsan-ul-Khaaliqeen, Muqallib-al-Quloob, Jaami-un-naasi li Yawmin laa reba feeh. And du’aa by these names is proved by the ijmaa’il-Muslimeen.

A hadeeth is narrated in the Al-Masnad by Aanas rAa, he said, “ We were sitting with Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam in the Masjid and a man was making salaat. He (the man) said: “اللهم إني أسألك بأن لك الحمد لا إلاه إلا أنت, المنًان بديع السماوات والأرض, يا ذا الجلال و الإكرام, يا حي يا قيوم,”

The Prophet salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam said, “he prayed to Allah by HIS IsmiAa’zam, that is the Name by which if HE is called, HE answers and if HE is asked (for something) HE gives it”

The Hadeeth mentioned above is teaching us that these names of Allah (i.e. Dhu-al-Jalaali wa Al-Ikram and Al-Hayy, Al-Qayyoom) have the Ismi-Aa’zam of Allah with which our du’aa is surely accepted. While we, the needy servants, have such sources for the acceptance of our du’aa coming out from our restless hearts/minds, then what else do we want?

Another hadeeth shareef in saheeh Muslim is narrated by Thawbaan rAa, he said: “Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam) when finished prayer (salaat), used to do astaghfaar three times and then say, “ اللهم أنت السلام و منك السَلام, تباركت يا ذا الجلال و الإكرام“.


We must follow Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam) and must do the same after salaat as He did.

we must remember Allah by HIS beautiful names and try to get lots of blessings by these names. Also we should try to supplicate with these names so that our good du’aas are accepted and positively answered to us as we are fuqaraa (beggars) to Allah in all circumstances. We cannot fulfil the rights of the names of Allah in their explanation. May Allah accept my humble attempts, aameen.

In the Attribute Dhu-al-Jalaali wa Al-Ikraam:

In the hadeeth shareef from Al-Masnad (first hadeeth after the verses), there is the word ألظوا This word is pronounced as “alizzoo” and it means “say it continually”. That means that Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam advised the Ummah to say the Name Dhu-al-Jalaali wa Al-Ikraam continuously many times and ask du’aa by it. It is said that Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam used to say this name once or three times or multiple times. (And Allah knows best).

مالك الملك

Maalik-al-Mulk (The Owner of Dominion)

Allah Ta’ala said in surah Aali-Imraan verses 26—27 (their English translation is):

(3:26) Say: ‘O Allah, Lord of all dominion! You give dominion to whom You will, and take away dominion from whom You will, and You exalt whom You will, and abase whom You will. In Your Hand is all good. Surely You are All-Power-ful.

(3:27) You cause the night to pass into the day and the day to pass into the night. You bring forth the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living, and You give sustenance to whom You will beyond all reckoning.’24

Regarding the Al-Mulk there are two names of Allah Azza wa Jall i.e. Al-Malik and Maalik-al-Mulk. You should read the Attribute Al-Malik to understand important points about these Attributes. Here are some dictionary meanings of these words for more understanding:

Malik — )In the Arabic word there is only fat’ha on the meem and no alif after meem like مَلِك ). This means the king, monarch.

Mulk— (hokum—sultah). It means reign, rule, power, authority, dominion, sovereignty.


Mulk /milk. It means property, possession (s), estate, domain.

Maalik— (In the Arabic word there is fat’ha on the meem and also the meem is followed by alif like مَالكit means owner, possesser, holder.

Here the post has the attribute “Maalik-al-Mulk” which according to dictionary, means The Owner of the Dominion. Allah Ta’aala is the Owner of the whole universe. Allah Azza wa Jall is the Owner of all and every thing which (according to our knowledge) includes the whole universe, and all of the creations /creatures as well as the rule and the Commands. Allah Ta’aala is also the Owner of the Here-after. Beyond our knowledge, Allah knows best about HIS other creations. The translation of a few verses which mention the absolute Ownership of Allah, is in the following:

Surah Aali-Imraan verse 189:

189. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Allah has power over all things.

Surah Ghaafir 16:

16. The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this Day? (Allah Himself will reply to His Question): It is Allah’s the One, the Irresistible!

This verse 16 is about the Here-after. In this world Allah has given kingdoms to different people who act as rulers/kings/Ministers etc. to test them how do they use the power given to them. They play their role and go /pass away! But on that Day (The Day of Judgment) Allah Azza wa Jall will not give any authority to any one because this world is for test and that world is for the result to come out and all shall be recompensed according to their books of deeds.

Surah Al-Furqaan 26:

26. The Sovereignty on that day will be the True (Sovereignty) belonging to the Beneficent One, and it will be a hard day for disbelievers.

This verse 26 of the surah Al-Furqaan is also about the Judgment Day in the Here-after. The meaning is very clear and understandable. Allah has very clearly informed mankind and Jinn that the Day of Judgment (Day of Accounting and Recompense) shall be very hard on the unbelievers! Allah also said in surah Al-Muddaththir verse 10: على الكافرين غير يسير (“Far from easy for the disbelievers”). That means that the Day of Accounting will not /and never become easy on the unbelievers. This life up to 30 to 60 years is sufficient for a person to choose sincerely for him /her self the Right Path so that he /she don’t cry and regret in the Here-after!

Surah Al-Zukhruf (Az-Zukhruf) 85:

85. And blessed is He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them and with whom is knowledge of the Hour and to whom you will be returned.

As Mulk (the whole universe) belongs to Allah, so Allah’s Commands must be obeyed by all of Allah’s servants among mankind and Jinn. Allah also reminded us the Hour (Resurrection) and that we are all returning to HIM for the result of our tests. The Accounting of every person shall be based on his/her book of deeds.

Surah Al-Zumar (Az-Zumar) verse 6:

6. He created you (all) from a single person (Adam); then made from him his wife [Hawwa’ (Eve)]. And He has sent down for you of cattle eight pairs (of the sheep, two, male and female; of the goats, two, male and female; of the oxen, two, male and female; and of the camels, two, male and female). He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation in three veils of darkness, such is Allah your Lord. His is the kingdom, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). How then are you turned away?

Surah Faatir verses 13—14:

13. He merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night are added to the hours of the day), and He merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day are added to the hours of the night). And He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law), each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the thin membrane over the datestone).

14. If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call, and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad SAW) like Him Who is the All-Knower (of each and everything).

Al-Maa’idah 76:

76. Say, “Do you worship besides Allah that which holds for you no [power of] harm or benefit while it is Allah who is the Hearing, the Knowing?”

Those people who worship false deities must understand that their false deities own no power. Nothing in the universe or in their own bodies is in their owner-ship. They cannot do anything to harm or benefit them. So the false deities have no right to be worshipped. Only Allah Ta’aala hears their /our prayers and provides them/and us everything. Allah Azza wa Jall is the Absolute Owner of their /our life and death as well as their / our loss and benefit all are with Allah. Therefore, Only Allah Ta’aala is the True deity so worship none but Allah Azza wa Jall.

Allah Ta’aala said in Surah Al-Mulk verses 1 and 2 (their English translation is):

1. Blessed is He in whose hand is dominion, and He has power over all things. 

2. [He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed – and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving –
In these two verses of the surah Al-Mulk Allah clearly informed us that the Mulk i.e. the universe and everything in it is in Allah’s Hand. Allah gives the dominion to whomever Allah wants and that is only to test you o mankind. You see that Allah has created death for you. So you are going from here and Allah shall give you life again to recompense you.

The conclusion is that in this Attribute of Allah there is a great lesson for all kings, rulers and land lords. Think: how many kings, rulers and rich property-holders have passed away. The mulk/property remains here while the owners/rulers just pass away empty-handed BUT they send even before them a lengthy book of deeds to be accounted and recompensed in whatever they got just temporarily in this world. Then this is not wisdom to love these worldly gains and fight for them. Rather, you must believe that everything belongs to Allah Azza wa Jall and thus you must use it according to the Will, Pleasure and Commands of Allah the Greatest!


Al-Ra’uuf (Ar-Ra’uuf)
The Clement, The Compassionate, The All-Pitying

This name is derived from the word ra’fa which means mercy. “Ra’fa bi” means to have mercy upon. Ar-ra’fah is the mercy which in this world is common for all but in the Here-After it is only for some special type of people like al-awliyaa (the friends), al-mu’minoon (the practicing believers) and al-muttaqoon (those who fear Allah All-Mighty a lot and are always obedient to Allah Azza wa jall). Thus Al-Ra’uuf (Ar-Ra’uuf) means the Merciful, the Affectionate the Compassionate and the Clement.

Here is the translation of some of the verses of the Holy Quraan which have this beautiful name of Allah Ta’ala. One of the important principles about the Names of Allah is that: when an aayah (verse) of the Holy Qur’aan ends with a Name of Allah then it means that the Command in the verse is related to the beautiful Name of Allah. So now we will see the verses with this beautiful Name of Allah Azza wa Jall:

Surah Al-Baqarah verse 143:

وما كان الله ليضيع ايمانكم إن الله باالناس لرءوف رحيم ….

The translation of the complete verse is:

143. Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that ye may be witnesses against mankind, and that the messenger may be a witness against you. And We appointed the qiblah which ye formerly observed only that We might know him who followeth the messenger, from him who turneth on his heels. In truth it was a hard (test) save for those whom Allah guided. But it was not Allah’s purpose that your faith should be in vain, for Allah is Full of Pity, Merciful toward mankind.

Thus it means that It doesn’t befit Allah azza wa jall to waste your faith. This is great mercy of Allah and in this there is happy news for the practicing believers that Allah Who by HIS Mercy gave us Islam and eemaan (the faith of Islam), will rather protect our eemaan so that it persists and remains strong with the rituals and character of Islam.

And Allah said in surah Al-Baqarah 207:

207. And there is the type of man who gives his life to earn the pleasure of Allah: And Allah is full of kindness to (His) slaves.

Another translation of the same verse is:

207. And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allah. And Allah is full of Kindness to (His) slaves.

Here appears a very beautiful and excellent principle of Allah azza wa Jall. That is when a Muslim sells his nafs to seek Allah’s pleasure, i.e. he forgets about his personal desires; rather he struggles to follow Allah’s Commands, then the ending of this verse by this great Name of Allah (Ar-Ra’uuf) with the words “bil ibaad” is like the Muslim (who sold himself for the pleasure of Allah ) will establish peace and security for the people. He /she will try to give people their rights. As Allah is Ar-Ra’uuf bil ibaad (very Kind to HIS servants) So the Muslim who devotes his life and struggles to please Allah, will do many things for the comfort of the ibaad (members of his society) in this world and for their success in the Here-After (This was my understanding but Allah knows the best). We can see that the Prophets alaihim salaam and their close followers always struggled for the rights of the mankind!!! They expect their reward only from Allah Azza wa Jall in the next world and serve humanity for free.

Surah Aali-Imran verse 30 (English translation):

30. On the Day when every person will be confronted with all the good he has done, and all the evil he has done, he will wish that there were a great distance between him and his evil. And Allah warns you of Himself (His Punishment) and Allah is full of Kindness to (HIS) slaves.

Although Allah Azza wa Jall is very strict in punishment to the transgressors but along with that Allah Azza wa Jall is Ra’uufun-bil-ibaad. So before that Hard Day of Judgment, Allah informed us all about the horrible punishment so that we, the servants may try to obey Allah’s Commands and thus protect ourselves from Hell.

Surah Al-Tawbah (At-Tawbah) verse 117:

[9:117] Surely Allah has relented towards the Prophet, and towards the Muhajirun (Emigrants) and the Ansar (Helpers) who stood by him in the hour of hardship,115 although the hearts of a party of them had well-nigh swerved.116 (But when they gave up swerving from the Right Course and followed the Prophet), Allah relented towards them.117 Surely to them He is the Most Tender, the Most Merciful.

Exp. note 115, 116 and 117:

115. Allah forgave the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions for those inadvertent lapses that had been made in connection with the Tabuk expedition, in view of their excellent services. The inadvertent lapse made by the Prophet (peace be upon him) was that he had given leave to stay behind to those people who were able to take part in the battle. (Ayat 43).

116. This refers to those sincere companions who were at first somewhat unwilling to go to war on that critical occasion, but at last overcame their weakness, for they had true faith in their hearts and loved the right way.

117. That is, Allah will not take them to account for their wrong inclinations for He does not punish a man for that weakness which he himself has overcome and corrected.

Surah Al-Nahl (An-Nahl) verses 4—7:

(16:4) He created man out of a mere drop of fluid, and lo! he turned into an open wrangler.7

Another translation of the same verse is:

(16:4). He has created man from a sperm-drop; and behold this same (man) becomes an open disputer!

(16:5) He created the cattle. They are a source of clothing and food and also a variety of other benefits for you.

(16:6) And you find beauty in them as you drive them to pasture in the morning and as you drive them back home in the evening;

(16:7) and they carry your loads to many a place which you would be unable to reach without much hardship. Surely your Lord is Intensely Loving, Most Merciful.

All of these verses of the surah Al-Nahl (the translation mentioned above) describe the blessings of Allah on mankind who is usually a disputer. Only count the blessings of Allah in the animals that Allah created for our benefits and comfort. Surely Allah is your Lord Ar-Ra’uuf-ur-Raheem!!!

Allah has also given us the blessings in the present era, those blessings which are the sources of transport from place to place like cars, buses trains, ships and air planes etc. So we must be very thankful and obedient to our Kind and Rauuf Lord. Allaho Akbar, wa lillahil hamd.

Some of the other verses with this beautiful Name of Allah Azza wa Jall are:
(Their English translation only)

Surah Al-Nahl (An-Nahl) verses 45—47:

(16:45) Do those who have been devising evil plans (against the mission of the Messenger) feel secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them up or that chastisement will not come upon them from a direction that they will not even be able to imagine;

(16:46) or that He will not suddenly seize them while they are going about to and fro and they will be unable to frustrate His design,

(16:47) or that He will not seize them when they are apprehensive of the impending calamity? Surely your Lord is Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.

Inspite of the fact that mankind is mostly disobedient and thankless to the Lord Allah Ta’aala and fights against Allah’s Messenger salla Allaho Alaihi wa sallam, but Allah All-Mighty doesn’t catch them at once! Rather Allah gives them long time to think, understand and repent to the very Kind and Unique Lord (Allah). Also gives them all blessings to enjoy. (But mankind must remember that Allah has appointed a Day in the Here-After to pass judgment, therefore they should not consider themselves absolutely free of responsibility. They must fear the Judgment Day).

Surah Al-Hajj verse 65:

(22:65) Have you not seen how Allah has subjected to you all that is in the earth, and the vessels that sail in the sea by His command,113 and it is He Who holds back the sky that it may not fall on earth except by His leave? Surely Allah is Most Gentle, Ever Compassionate to people.

This verse 65 of surah al-Hajj is very clear to understand. So Allah is Ra’uuf-ur Raheem for all mankind!!!

Surah Al-Noor (An-Noor) 20:

20. And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you, (Allah would have hastened the punishment upon you). And that Allah is full of kindness, Most Merciful.

This verse 20 of the surah Al-Noor is in the context of those verses which were sent down to declare the piety of Aa’ishah radiyallaho anha. That means the false accusation on her might have caused the coming of wrath of Allah on the accusers but due to the Ra’uuf and Raheem qualities of Allah Azza wa Jall the punishment (Wrath) was not hastened. (But you must know that all of the accusers were punished with 80 lashes each in front of the people, according to the Law that was sent down in the beginning of the surah Al-Noor).

Surah Al-Hadeed 9:

(57:9) He it is Who sends down Clear Signs to His servant so as to bring you out from darkness into light. Surely Allah is Most Kind and Most Compassionate to you.
Sending down the Holy Quraan through HIS Messenger Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam to take mankind out of the darkness of kufar (unbelief) into the Light of Islam is the greatest of the blessings because it protects us from the ever-lasting burning in Hell!!!

Surah Al-Hashar 10:

(59:10) (And it also belongs to) those who came after them,20 and who pray: “Lord, forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and do not put in our hearts any rancor towards those who believe. Lord, You are the Most Tender, the Most Compassionate.”21

Exp. note 21:

21. In this verse although the real object is only to point out that in faith not only the people of the present generation but the Muslims of the later periods and their future generations also have a share, yet, besides, the Muslims have also been taught an important moral lesson that they should never have any malice against other Muslims in their hearts, and they should continue to pray for the forgiveness of the Muslims who have gone before them instead of cursing and abusing them. The bond that binds the Muslims together is that of a common faith. If a person values his faith as the most important thing in his heart, inevitably he would be a well-wisher of all those people who are his brethren-in faith. He can have ill-will and malice and hatred towards them in his heart only when the value of the faith decreases in his sight and he starts valuing other things more. Therefore, it is the requirement of faith that a believer’s heart should be free from every trace of malice and hatred against the other believers. In this matter the best lesson is given by a Hadith which Nasai has related from Anas. According to him, once it so happened that for three days continuously the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared in his assembly that a person was going to appear before them who belonged to the dwellers of Paradise, and every time it would be a certain person from among the Ansar. At this Abdullah bin Amr bin Aas became curious as to what deeds the person concerned performed on the basis of which the Prophet (peace be upon him) had repeatedly given the good news of his admission to Paradise. Thus, he made an excuse and spent three consecutive nights in his house to see how he performed his worship, but during the night he did not see anything unusual. At last, he asked him directly as to what special acts and devotions he performed on the basis of which the Prophet (peace be upon him) had given the great good news about him. He replied: You have seen how I perform my worship, but there is one thing which might have carved me this reward: I do not harbor any malice or evil design against any Muslim, nor feel jealous of him on account of any good that Allah might have bestowed on him.