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الجبار

Al-Jabbaar (The Enforcer of HIS decrees):

Exp-note 42 (of the verse 23 of surah Al-Hashar):

42. The word Al-Jabbaar as used in the original is derived from jabr which means setting something right by use of power, reforming something by force. Allah has been called Al-Jabbaar in the sense that He sets the system of His universe right by the use of power and enforces His will, which is entirely based on wisdom. Moreover, the word Jabber also contains the meaning of greatness and glory. Thus, a palm-tree which is too tall for the people to pluck its fruit is called jabber in Arabic. Likewise, an act which is grand and glorious is called amal jabbar. 

The other meanings of Jabbaar as given in the light of the Quraanic verses are:

  1. Overpowering;

          All things are low and subjected to Allah, everything and everyone is in submission to Allah willfully or unwillfully. None has power to resist the All-Mighty God. Thus the upper world (the heavens) as well as the lower world (the earth, mountains and the oceans ) and all that which is in them surrender to Allah in their state of motion and rest. All are under the rule and management of Allah. They have no status of command. All Command and Rule belongs only to Allah.

The Command of Allah encompasses all rules of religion, fortune, and recompense. None is Haakim except Allah. None is Lord or God except Allah.

It does not mean that a person/servant is obliged in his/her personal actions. No! This is not the case because All-Mighty God has given him/her freedom of choice in his/her personal actions. So Allah said in surah Al-Kahf verse 29 and surah Al-Shams (pronounced as Ash-Shams) verses 7-10, here is their translation:

 (18:29) And say, “This is the truth from your Lord, so whoever wills – let him believe; and whoever wills – let him disbelieve.” Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them. And if they call for relief, they will be relieved with water, like murky oil, which scalds [their] faces. How dreadful is the drink and how evil is the resting place!

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This verse clearly informs that the truth of Tawheed (absolute Oneness of God) is very clear.Now the mankind is left with freedom to choose what way they like, whether the way of belief or the way of disbelief. But they must understand that the Haq (the Truth about God and the Accounting and Judgement Day will not be compromised. So those who willfully choose the wrong way (the way of Satan + their lust) will be punished in Hell with severe chastisement while those who will choose the right way will be rewarded in Paradise (see the next verse i.e verse 30 for their reward in Paradise).Surah Al-Shams (Ash-Shams) verses 7—10 (translation only):

(91:7). And [by] the soul and He who proportioned it

(91:8). And inspired it [with discernment of] its wickedness and its righteousness,

(91:9). He has succeeded who purifies it,

(91:10). And he has failed who instills it [with corruption].

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Here again Allah the All-Mighty God makes it clear that mankind is given freedom to choose the way of life they want. But they will be accounted and recompensed according to their faith and deeds.

The second meaning of Al-Jabbaar includes Allah’s Kindess and Mercy. According to this meaning, Allah makes someone poor and forces him/her to be patient. Then Allah gives him great reward for his poverty and sufferings. Similarly, a sick person is obliged to be patient on his illness and suffering. Then Allah gives him patience and relieves his/her pain, thus his/her sins are washed away. Those who fear Allah a lot and their hearts are remembering Allah, they are obliged by special Jabar. So they feel more and more greatness of Allah. If they by mistake are getting near a sinful thing, their hearts get fear and are warned in different way to be protected from the sins. The more a Muslim fears Allah, the greater he/she will be near Allah and will feel Allah’s attributes to stay away from sins. So their hearts are getting guided more and more in accordance with Quran and Sunnah. There is a du’aa “Allahumma ajbirnee” (meaning, “O Allah force me / compel me”). The meaning of this du’aa is the same type of Jabar , merciful jabar for protection from sins. It comes in the Al-Tirhmidhi and Ibn Maajah in a hadeeth narrated by Ibn Abbas RAA that the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) صلى الله عليه و سلم used to say between the two prostrations in salaat:

 الهم اغفرلي  وارحمني و اجبرني و اهدني ارزقني

It means: “O Allah, forgive me, do mercy on me, compel me and guide me, and give me sustenance”.

The third meaning of Al-Jabbaar is the Highness of Allah over and above all the creations. And this Al-Jabaroot is only for one Allah. According to a hadeeth shareef given here the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) صلى الله عليه و سلم   used to say in his rukoo (bowing down in prayer) and sujood (prostration):

سبحان ذي الجبروت و الملكوت و الكبرياء و العظمة

If anyone from the creation practices jabar so he/she will face the anger of Allah. Allah has promised for such a one severe punishment. Allah said in the verse 35 of Surah Ghaafir (Al-Mu’min) its translation is:

(40:35). Those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without an authority having come to them – great is hatred [of them] in the sight of Allah and in the sight of those who have believed. Thus does Allah seal over every heart [belonging to] an arrogant tyrant.

Also Allah said in Surah Ibraheem verses 15-17 (translation only):

(14:15) They sought Our judgement. And every obstinate tyrant opposed to the Truth was brought to naught

(14:16). Before him is Hell, and he will be given a drink of purulent water.

(14:17). He will gulp it but will hardly [be able to] swallow it. And death will come to him from everywhere, but he is not to die. And before him is a massive punishment.

It came in Ahmad and Al-Tirmidhee from Abu Hurairah RAA, he said that Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم   said:

On the Day of Resurrection, a neck will come out of the Fire (of Hell). It has two eyes to see with, two ears to hear with, and a tongue that it will speak with. It will say: surely, I am appointed upon three: 1. Al-Jabbaarin Aneed (stubborn tyrants), 2) all those who associate other parteners with Allah, and 3) upon the picture makers.

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May Allah protect us from the Fire and from the Anger of Al-Jabbaar (God) and also we seek the refuge of Allah Subhaanahu from the evils of character, and from lust desires and moral illnesses.

العزيز

Al-Azeez: (The All-Mighty):

This name of Allah came many times in the verses of the Holy Quraan. One of the verses is the verse 23 of the surah Al-Hashr. Its translation is here:

(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,39 the Giver of security,38 the Overseer,40 the Most Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted is He from whatever they associate with Him.

Exp-note 41:

41. Al-Azeez: such an Almighty Being against Whom no one may dare raise his head, no one may have the power to resist His decrees, before Whom everyone may be helpless and powerless.

This great name of Allah has come in the Holy Quraan for about a hundred times. This also means that all types of izzah (Honor belongs only to Allah, as Allah said in surah Yoonus verse 65:

  
إن العزة لله جميعاً  

Surely all honor belongs to Allah alone. Here “all honor” means all kinds of honor and honor in all fields here and in the Here-After. This can be explained under three headings:

  1. Izzah Al-Quwwah

That is the Honor of Power. Thisis a great attribute of Allah. So none of the creatures/creation is compareable to Allah in Power, no matter how tremendously huge the creature / creation may be.

Allah said in surah Al-Dhaariyaat verse 58 (translation only):

(51:58) Surely Allah is the Bestower of all provision, the Lord of all power, the Strong.55

And Allah said in surah Al-Hajj verse 74

(22:74) They have not formed a true estimate of Allah. Indeed, Allah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.

  • Al-Izzah Al-Imtinaa’ (that is the honor that none else deserves. In other words no one else can reach it).

The examples are;None of the servants can be able to harm Allah while He ( God /Allah) does harm them. No one of the servants can be able to benefit Him (Allah) while Allah does benefit them. Allah is Addaar and an-Naafi’ (Al-Daar and Al-Naafi’) i.e. The Giver of harm and the Giver of benefit. Allah is high above any weakness. So none can reach Allah in any way. None deserves such a status. All are the creations while Allah alone is the Creator. Allah is Al-Ghanee and Al-Mu’tee and Al-Maani’. That is Allah is self-sufficient, does not depend upon anyone while all others depend upon Him. Allah gives blessings to whom He wills and prevents from whom He wills. Allah does not need any partner or helper and Allah is high above any weakness or defect. Allah said in the following verses:

Surah Al-Safaat (As-Safaat) verses 180—182 (translation only);

(37:180) Exalted is your Lord, the Lord of Glory, above what they attribute to Him,

(37:181) and peace be upon the Messengers,

(37:182) and all praise is for Allah, the Lord of the Universe.

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And Allah said in surah Al-Room (Ar-Room) verse 27 (translation only);

(30:27) It is He Who creates in the first instance and it is He Who will repeat the creation, and that is easier for Him.38 His is the loftiest attribute in the heavens and the earth. He is the Most Mighty, the Most Wise.  

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  • Izzatul-Qahar wal-ghalbah lijmee-il kaa-inaat (The Honor of overcoming and subjugating the whole universe /all creation).

The whole universe with all of the creatures and creations in it are overpowered by Allah and they are subservient to the Greatness of Allah, and obedient to the Will of Allah. The forelocks of all creatures are in Allah’s Hand. Nothing can move without the Will of Allah. Whatever is done by the creatures and people is done only by Allah’s leave. So whatever Allah wants happens and what Allah doesn’t want will not happen. There is no strength in or power with anyone except that which is given by Allah.

 Surah Aali-Imraan verses 26 and 27 (translation only):

(3:26). Say: ‘O Allah, Lord of all dominion! You give dominion to whom You will, and take away dominion from whom You will, and You exalt whom You will, and abase whom You will. In Your Hand is all good. Surely You are All-Powerful.

        (3:27) You cause the night to pass into the day and the day to pass into the night. You bring forth the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living, and You give sustenance to whom You will beyond all reckoning.’24

Surah Al-Hadeed verse 1 (translation and explanation):

(57:1) All that is in the heavens and the earth extols the glory of Allah.1 He is the Most Mighty, the Most Wise.2

Exp. note 2:

That is, not only is He All-Mighty and All-Wise, but the truth is that He alone is All-Mighty and All-Wise. The word Aziz signifies a mighty and powerful Being Whose decrees cannot be prevented by any power in the world from being enforced, Whom no one can oppose and resist, Who has to be obeyed by every one whether one likes it or not, Whose rebel cannot escape His accountability and punishment in any way. The word Hakeem signifies that whatever He does, He does it wisely. His creation, His administration and rule, His commands and guidance, all are based on wisdom. None of His works is tarnished by any tract of folly or ignorance.

There is another fine point here, which one should fully understand. Seldom in the Quran has Allah’s attribute of Azeez (All-Mighty) been accompanied by His attributes of being Qawi (Strong), Muqtadir (Powerful), Jabber (Omnipotent), Dhuntiqam (Avenger) and the like, which only signify His absolute power, and this has been so only in places where the context demanded that the wicked and disobedient be warned of Allah’s relentless punishment. Apart from such few places, wherever the word Azeez has been used for Allah, it has everywhere been accompanied by one or other of His attributes of being Hakeem (Wise), Aleem (Knower), Raheem (Merciful), Ghafur (Forgiving), Wahhaab (Generous) and Hameed (Praiseworthy). The reason is that if a being who wields un-limited power is at the same time unwise, ignorant, un-forgiving as well as stingy and devoid of character, its power and authority cannot but lead to injustice and wickedness. Thus, wherever injustice and wickedness is being committed in the world, it is only because the one who wields authority over others, is either using his power un-wisely and foolishly, or he is merciless and hardhearted, or evil-minded and wicked. Wherever power is coupled with these evil traits of character, no good can be expected to result. That is why in the Quran Allah’s attribute of Azeez has necessarily been accompanied by His attributes of being All-Wise and Knowing, Compassionate and Forgiving, Praiseworthy and Generous. So that man may know that the God Who is ruling this universe has, on the one hand, such absolute power that no one, from the earth to the heavens, can prevent His decrees from being enforced. But, on the other hand, He is also All-Wise: His each decision is based on perfect wisdom. He is also All- Knowing: whatever decision He makes, it is precisely according to knowledge. He is also Compassionate: He does not use infinite power mercilessly. He is Forgiving as well: He does not punish His creatures for trifling faults, but overlooks their errors. He is also Generous: He does not treat His subjects stingily, but liberally and benevolently. And He is also Praiseworthy: He combines in Himself all praiseworthy virtues and excellences.

The importance of this statement of the Quran can be better understood by those people who are aware of the discussions of the philosophy of politics and law on the question of sovereignty. Sovereignty connotes that the one who possesses it should wield un-limited power: there should be no internal and external power to change or modify his decision or prevent it from being enforced, and none should have any alternative but to obey him. At the mere concept of this infinite and un-limited power, man’s common-sense necessarily demands that whoever attains to such power, should be faultless and perfect in knowledge and wisdom, for if the one holding this power is ignorant, merciless and evil, his sovereignty will inevitably lead to wickedness and corruption. That is why the philosophers, who regarded a single man, or a man-made institution, or an assembly of men as the holder of this power, have had to presume that he or it would be infallible. But obviously, neither can unlimited sovereignty be actually attained by a human power, nor is it possible for a king, or a parliament, or a nation, or a party that it may use the sovereignty attained by it in a limited circle faultlessly and harmlessly. The reason is that the wisdom that is wholly free of every trace of folly, and the knowledge that fully comprehends all the related truths, is not at all possessed even by entire mankind, not to speak of its being attained by an individual, or an institution, or a nation. Likewise, as long as man is man, his being wholly free of and above selfishness, sensuality, fear, greed, desires, prejudice and sentimental love, anger and hate is also not possible. If a person ponders over these truths, he will realize that the Quran is indeed presenting here a correct and perfect view of sovereignty. It says that no one except Allah in this universe is possessor of absolute power, and with this unlimited power He alone is faultless, All-Wise and All- Knowing, Compassionate and Forgiving, and Praiseworthy and Generous in His dealings with His subjects.

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The effects of one’s faith in this Attribute of Allah i.e. Al-Azeez will be that the humility of a Muslim will be only to Allah, he /she will ask du’aa only from Allah, will request only Allah for protection, honor, sustenance etc. His /her head will bow only before Allah Ta’ala. 

الرب The Lord

Al-Rabb (It is written as Al-Rabb but is pronounced as Ar-Rabb)

This beautiful name of Allah is present in some of the collections of the beautiful names of Allah but it has come in the Holy Quraan hundreds of times as is mentioned in the book Fiqh Al-Asmaa’-il-Husna. It is also repeatedly recited in our daily prayers, for e.g. Alhamdu-lillahi Rabbil-aalameen, (surah Al Fatiha 2nd verse)

It means: All praises are due for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. 

Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem,
 (Glorified is my Lord, The Magnificent) It is recited in rakoo’ when we bow down in our prayer.

Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la
 (Glorified is my Lord, The Highest). It is recited in sujood (prostrations).

Allah said in the Holy Quraan in surah AL-Naba (An-Naba)’ verse 37 :

Rabbi-ssamaawaati wal- ardi wa maa bainahumaa-Al-Rahmaan laa yamlikoona minhu khitaabaa

English translation:


The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatsoever is in between them, is the Rahmaan, none can dare to speak with Him (on the Day of Resurrection except after His Leave). 


Qul aghair-Allahi abghi rabban wa huwa Rabbu kulli shai’

Al-An’aam, 164

English translation:

Say: “Shall I seek a lord other than Allah, while He is the Lord of all things?…

Qul inna salaatee wa nusukee wa mahyaaya wa mamaatee lillahi Rabbil-aalameen. Al-An’aam 162

English translation:

Say: “Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds:

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This name Al-Rabb is related with Tawheed-Al-Raboobiyyah which means the absolute oneness of Lord-hood. Allah, Al-Rabb is the only One Lord Who cherishes everyone in unique way.

According to this tawheed we must believe that Allah is the Lord of everyone and everything and there is no Lord other than Allah.

The meaning of Rabb is Al-Malik-al-Mudabbir i.e. The Master, The Sovereign, the One that is the Manager of all affairs of the universe,.

And the Raboobiyyah of Allah on HIS creation means that HE (Allah) is the Only One Who creates them, all are in HIS possession and HE alone manages the affairs of all creation including mankind and Jinn.

The Oneness of Rabb also means to believe that Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala is the One Who gives us life and death, benefits and harms, accepts and answers our du’aa (prayers, supplication), HE is the Provider as well as the Preventer; and HE has power over all HIS creation. In short, HIS is the creation and HIS is the Command as Allah Almighty said in surah Al-A’araaf verse 54:
….. Ala lahul khalqu wal-amr, Tabaarak-Allaho Rabbul-aalameen.

English translation of the complete verse 54 of surah Al-A’araaf:

(7:54). In fact, your Guardian-Lord is Allah alone , Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then firmly established on the throne (of HIS Kingdom); Who makes the night cover the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession; Who created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Note it well: HIS is the creation and HIS the Command (HIS is the Sovereignty). Full of blessings is Allah, the Lord of the worlds!
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Under the Attribute Al-Rabb also comes destiny. Our fortune/luck is all in the hands of that single and unique Lord, “AL-Rabb”. So whatever good or bad befalls us, it happens by Allah Almighty’s Knowledge, Will and Power. Nothing can happen in this universe without Allah’s Will. Therefore, Allah, Al-Rabb has the right to be worshipped and obeyed; and that we must remain humble and grateful to HIM. Du’aa (prayer) request must be done to the One Whose is the creation and Command and we all must fear only HIM.

Allah is Rabbil-Arshil-Azeem, i.e. The Lord and Master of the Great Throne. So Allah Almighty is the real true King and the Law-Giver. Therefore all of us mankind is obligated to follow the rules and regulations given by our Rabb Allah. All chiefs/rulers must implement the Laws that the True Lord Allah has revealed in the Holy Quraan and are explained in the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him). Every Chief must take lesson from the fate of Fir’on (Pharaoh) whose body, along with the bodies of his army, are preserved in the pyramids of Egypt for warning! 

There are two kinds of the Al-Raboobiyyah:

  1. The general and common Al-Rabboobiyyah; This type of cherishing includes all creatures good and bad, believers and unbelievers, rightly guided and astray. They all are provided  sustenance, blessings, management of their affairs, their rise and fall, giving them blessings or preventing  from them, honoring or dishonoring them, relieving their pain and answering the prayers of those in restless condition. See the translation of the surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verse 29:

(55:29) All in the heavens and the earth entreat Him for their needs; a new, mighty task engages Him each day.

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2. The second is the special cherishing of the awliyaa and muttaqeen (God-fearing, righteous practicing believers). The Ar-Rabb helps them to reach high degree of eemaan (faith) and increase in good deeds and worship of Allah, taking them out from the darkness of ignorance into the light of the Islamic knowledge, becoming closer to Allah, making all good easy for them and protecting him/her from all evil. So the aim of the ulul-albaab (the wise) and pious Muslims is to achieve this meaning of the Al-Rabb (Ar-Rabb). They did special training for this purpose and achieved their aim. Then the eemaan (faith) of the servant on the name Ar-Rabb of Allah makes it mandatory to purify his worship to Allah and stand before his Lord with extreme humbleness. Allah said in the surah Al-Anbiyaa 92:

إِنَّ هَٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ – 21:92   

(21:92) Verily this community of yours is a single community, and I am your Lord; so worship Me.

Surah Al-Baqarah verse 21:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ – 2:21

(2:21). O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous.

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As Allah Ta’ala is the Rabb of all worlds so Allah will not leave His muttaqeen servants without enjoining good and forbidding evil to remind mankind their purpose of life that mankind is created only to worship Allah. From among the mankind there are the sa-eedun (lucky, happy), these are those who obeyed and worshipped Allah, and shaqiyyun (the unhappy, miserable), these are the type of people who  disobeyed Allah, their Lord, and followed their lust.

Whoever believes in the Raboo-biyyatillah and is pleased with Allah being the Ar-Rabb, he she is pleased with all the “do and don’t” Commands of Allah. He/she is also thankful for all the blessings and fortune given to them. On the other hand, those not accepting the Commands of do and don’t will in reality, not accept Allah to be their Rabb. In a Hadeeth shareef the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said: “The one who is pleased with Allah to be his Rabb, with Islam to be his Deen and with Muhammad salla Allaho alayhi wa sallam to be the Rasool (Messenger of Allah), he has tasted the (pleasure of) faith.” (Muslim)