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المهيمن

Al-Muhaimin

Al-Muhaimin (The Guardian, the Observer, the Overseer, the Protector)

This name of Allah came in the verse 23 of the surah Al-Hashr. Its translation and explanation is here:

(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,38 the Giver of security,39 the Overseer,40 the Most Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted is He from whatever they associate with Him.

Exp-note 40:

40. The word Al-Muhaimin has three meanings: 

(1) The Guardian and Protector. 

(2) The Observer who sees what everyone does. 

(3) The Being Who has taken up the responsibility to fulfill the needs and requirements of the people. 

Here also, since the word Al-Muhaimin has been used absolutely, and no object has been mentioned of this subject, therefore, it by itself gives the implied meaning that He is guarding and protecting all creatures, is watching the acts and deeds of everyone, and has taken up the responsibility of sustaining and providing for every creature in the universe with its needs and requirements. 

The other meanings of Al-Muhaimin are: The One who is very High, the One Who knows all hidden matters and knows the secrets of the hearts. Al-Muhaimin is the One Whose knowledge encompasses everything, Who is a Witness on all people’s actions, and is also an Observer and Watcher on the deeds of people, nothing of their action is hidden from Him, no particle in the heaven and the earth is hidden from Him.

Allah also gave this name to the Holy Quraan in the verse 48 of the surah Al-Maa’idah. Here is the translation and explanatory note 79 of the verse 48 of surah Al-Maa’idah:

(5:48) Then We revealed the Book to you (O Muhammad!) with Truth, confirming whatever of the Book was revealed before,78 and protecting and guarding over it.79 Judge, then, in the affairs of men in accordance with the Law that Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires in disregard of the Truth which has come to you. For each of you We have appointed a Law and a way of life.80 And had Allah so willed, He would surely have made you one single community; instead, (He gave each of you a Law and a way of life) in order to test you by what He gave you. Vie, then, one with another in good works. Unto Allah is the return of all of you; and He will then make you understand the truth concerning the matters on which you disagreed.81

Exp. note 79:

79. In Arabic, haymana, yuhayminu, hayamanah signify ‘to protect, to witness, to keep trust, to back and to support’. The expression ‘haymana al-rajul al-shay’ means that the man protected and guarded the thing. Likewise, ‘haymana al-ta’ir ‘alafirdkhih’ means that the bird took its young ones under the protection of its wings. Once ‘Umar said to the people: ‘Inni da’in fa hayminu’ (‘I am praying; support me by saying amen’). To say that the Qur’an is muhaymin of al-kitab means that it preserves all the true teachings of the earlier divine books; that it has secured them from loss. The Qur’an also confirms those Books in that the contents of the Qur’an testify to the truth of those parts which are indeed from God. The Qur’an is, further, a witness over those Books in the sense that, with its help, the elements which embody true revelations from God can be distinguished from the accretions which have corrupted them. Whatever in these Books accords with the Qur’an is from God, and whatever is not in conformity with it is from human beings.

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The Holy Quraan is ameen on those previous Divine Books in the sense that it preseves and secures all those statements in the Books of the past, those statements which were sent down by Allah.  The meaning of Al-Muhaymin in the above exp.note 79 makes it more clear that the Al-Muhaymin attribute of Allah points to all those great qualities of Allah All-Mighty God.

المؤمن

Al-Mu’min ( The Testifier, The Giver of security):

This great name of Allah has come in the Holy Quran only once and that is in the verse 23 of surah Al-Hashar. The translation of the verse is:

(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,38 the Giver of security,39 the Overseer,40 the Most Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted is He from whatever they associate with Him.


Exp-note 39:

39. The word Al-Mu’min is derived from amn, which means to secure from fear, and Mu’min is the one who provides security to others. Allah has been called Al-Mumin in the sense that He provides security to His creatures. His creatures are secure from the fear that He would ever wrong them, or deprive them of their rights, or allow their rewards to go to waste, or would violate the promises He has made with them. Then, since no object has been mentioned with this subject, but the epithet of Al-Mumin has been used absolutely, it automatically gives the meaning that His security comprehends the entire universe and all that it contains. 

The other meanings of this name are:

The name is also related with the word “al-eemaan” which means to believe and testify, also the one who confirms (authorizes true) the eemaan of Muslims.

So Allah is Al-Mu’min in the sense that Allah admires Himself as One Single and Unique God. Mujaahid rahmatullahi alaihi said:  Al-Mu’min is the One Who testified Himself to be One by saying; “Shahida-Allaho annahu laa ilaha illa huwa” (Allah witnessed /testified that there is no God except Him). This is a part of the verse 18 of the surah Aali-Imraan. This is the greatest testimony from the Greatest Witness (Allah) on the most important of the object which is Tawheed of Allah and the purifying of the Deen (religion) for Him. Tawheed means to believe in the absolute Oneness of God.      

It comes in the Al-Tirmidhi, Ibn. Maajah and others that Abu Hurairah and abu Sa-eed testified that Allah’s Messenger salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam said, “ when a servent says ‘laa ilaha ill Allaho, wa-Allaho akbar’ Allah Tabaarak wa Ta’ala says ‘ My servant said the truth, there is no God except Me and I am the Greatest’. And when (the servant) says, ‘laa ilaha illa Allaho wahdahu’ (Allah) says, ‘My servant said the truth, there is no God but I, the One’. And when he ( the servant) says, ‘laa ilaha illa Allaho wahdahu laa shareeka lahu’ (Allah) says, ‘My servant said the truth, there is no God but I, there is no partner with Me’. And when (the servant ) said, ‘laa ilaha illa Allaho lahul mulku wa lahul hamd’ (Allah )says, My servant said the truth, there is no God but I, Mine is the Kingdom and for Me are the Praises. And when (the servant) said, ‘‘laa ilaha illa Allaho   
wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa billah (bi-Allah)’ (Allah) says, ‘My servant said the truth, there is no God but I and there is no power and no strength but with Me’.

Thus it is the great testimony from Allah for the absolute Oneness of Himself and also the confirmation of the testifying of the servants. This confirmation by Allah of their testimonies about tawheed and other articles of faith becomes a proof and evidence to help them on the Day of Judgement. Ibn Al-Qayyim rahmatullahi alaihi said that from His Names one is Al-Mu’min which in one of the commentaries, is considered to be Al-Musaddiq. Al-Musaddiq means the One Who confirms the truth of the truthful and provides evidence of their truthfulness. So Allah, the Al-Mu’min Al-Musaddiq confirmed the truthfulness of His Prophets and Messengers alayhim salaam. Allah, due to His Attribute Al-Mu’min, revealed evidences to prove the truth of His messengers, that whatever they said regarding the religion, is true and is from Allah. That the Divine Books (e.g. the Holy Quraan) is truly the Revelation of Allah. To understand this point see the translation of the following Verses of the Holy Quraan:

Surah Fusilat verses 52 and 53 (translation only):

(41:52) Say, “Have you considered: if the Qur’an is from Allah and you disbelieved in it, who would be more astray than one who is in extreme dissension?”

(41:53) We will show them Our signs in the horizons and within themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. But is it not sufficient concerning your Lord that He is, over all things, a Witness?

السلام

Al-Salaam (read as As-Salaam):

(The All-Peace)

This name of Allah Ta’ala came in the verse 23 of the surah Al-Hashr. Its translation with the explanation is here:

(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,38 the Giver of security,39 the Overseer,40 the Most Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted is He from whatever they associate with Him.


Exp-note 38:
This is the explanation of the name Al-Salaam (As-Salaam)

38. The word As-Salaam as used in the original means peace and secure, Allah’s being called As-Salaam means that He is peace and safety personified. He is far exalted that some calamity or weakness or defect should befall Him, or His Perfection should suffer a decline or blemish. 
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The details of this name are:

The meaning of Al-Salaam (As-Salaam) includes safety and security from all types of defects in person, attributes and actions. So Allah Jalla wa Aa’la is truly safe from all points of view. Allah, in person, is perfect safety and peace, and no defect or evil can touch Him. All His Attributes are high above any defect. His Actions are perfectly safe from any type of defect, evil or harm. That is none of His actions happens without wisdom. He Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala is safe and clean from the company of a spouse or a child, is safe from having any like of Him, and is Safe and clean from any associate or partner.

This name (As-Salaam) is applied in all of the Attributes of Allah. Thus every attribute of Allah is Salaam i.e. safe and secure from having any defect. Haafiz ibn Al-Qayyim rahamhullah said in his explanation of this great name: If you think and observe the greatness of this attribute of Allah, you will find every attribute salaaman (safe and secure) from the opposite qualities. So Allah is Al-Hayyi (Living) and Allah’s Life is Salaaman (safe ) from death, drowsiness and sleep. His Supporting and His application of power are all safe and free from any tiredness. His Knowledge is safe from ignorance, mistake and forgetfulness. Moreover Allah doesn’t need to think or remember. His intention is safe (Salaam) from getting out of wisdom or going away from benefitting and reforming. His Words are safe and clean from any falsehood or injustice. Rather Allah’s Words are “Tammat kalimatihi sidqanwwa adla” . Allah said in the verse 115 of the surah Al-An’aam, its translation is:

        (6:115). And the word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can alter His words, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

Allah’s Self-Sufficiency is Salaam from any need or dependence upon others. Rather all others depend upon Allah for their needs and safety and Allah is absolutely Self-Sufficient.

His kingdom is safe from any dispute or conflicts etc. that means there is no equal king to fight or dispute or make conflict or clash against Allah in Allah’s kingdom. It is also Salaam from having any helper or any intercessor without His permission. His God-hood is safe and high above having any associate or partner. His forbearing, patience and forgiving are safe (salaam) from any need or weakness. So when Allah forbears, shows patience to His servants and even forgives their sins, that is not because Allah is weak or needs something from them. Rather it is due to Allah All-Mighty’s favor, kindness and generosity towards His servants. Thus Allah gives time to His servants, doesn’t punish them at once and if they repent, will forgive their sins.

Allah’s Anger, Revenge and Punishment, and His speedy chastisement are salaam in the meaning that it is not due to cruelty, hard-heartedness or injustice but is fully based on Hikmah (Wisdom) and Justice. So Allah’s punishment also deserves to praise Him like His Forgiving deserves to praise Him. This is because if Allah leaves a cruel transgressor free and unchecked by punishment then the others will be in trouble and their life will become hard for them. Thus it is against wisdom and justice to leave the cruels free for transgression and corruption in the land of Allah where everyone has the right to live in peace and safety.

Allah’s making fortune is also salaam i.e. safe from any injustice, it is with full hikmah (wisdom). Allah’s Deen (religion) and Laws are all Salaam i.e. the entire Islaamic system is peace, safety and security because there is no defect or conflict between the Commands of Allah and the human nature. None of Allah’s Commands puts burdon on man that he/she cannot bear. All of the Islamic Commands are full of mercy and grace, and are based on wisdom and justice. These Commands are for the welfare and benefit of mankind here and in the here-after. Similarly, Allah’s bestowing blessings on the servants is salaam from any need for a substitute etc. Allah doesn’t owe to people any thing nor He needs anything from them. Thus it is only the kindness of Allah that He bestows blessings on people. And when Allah stops blessings from a person then it is also salaam from any greed or fear of destitution. So Allah’s stopping blessings from someone is purely based on justice and wisdom and is not due to greediness or poverty.

In short, Allah is Salaam in His all attributes. Truly Allah is a very Unique Being, so we cannot imagin or describe His attributes in full. We understand a lot from Allah’s creation which is before our eyes. But at the same time there are lots more which are hidden from our eyes or are beyond our understanding. Allah’s one name is Az-Zaahir (written as Al-Zaahir) it means the Manifest One. The other and opposite name is Al-Baatin (The Hidden One). Allah is Zaahir i.e. Manifest because of Allah’s great creative Power. So we can see the greatness of All-Mighty God by looking at the surrounding excellent universe. But at the same time Allah is hidden from our eyes, We cannot see the Great Great Being, our Creator, although Allah is so near to us! Allah is As-Salaam and Al-Ghaniyyun-Hameed (Self Sufficient and Praiseworthy).

Allah’s seeing and hearing are also salaam from similarity with that of the creation. The seeing and hearing of the creation cannot be compared to that of Allah. Allah sees and hears all what is inside all hearts and all cells, nuclei and genes etc. Allah sees and hears each and everything at one and the same time. Nothing is hidden from Allah in the darkness of the night, in the depth of the oceans and even inside and under the earth.

Allah’s making someone friend is also salaam (safe) from any weakness. Allah made the Prophets and pious Muslims His friends but it was due to kindness and good of Allah and not due to any type of weakness or need. Allah said in the verse 111 of the surah Al-Israa:

Surah Al-Israa verse 111 (translation only);

(17:111) And say: “All praise be to Allah Who has neither taken to Himself a son, nor has He any partner in His kingdom, nor does He need any protecting friend, out of weakness”. So glorify Him in a manner worthy of His glory.

 

The evidence of this great name of Allah Ta’ala is that Allah is the Lord of peace, Safety and security. Look at the management of that Lord and think about it. Generally, this earth is made full of peace and safety for the creation. The Sun, the moon, the stars and the cycle of the day and night are all made safe and beneficial to the creatures. Allah said salaam to His Prophets as can be seen in the following verses of the Holy Quraan.

Surah Al-Naml (An-Naml) verse 59:

(27:59). Say,  [O Muhammad], “Praise be to Allah, and peace upon His servants whom He has chosen. Is Allah better or what they associate with Him?”

Surah Al-Saffaat (As-Saffaat) 79, 109, 120, 130 (their translation only):

(37:79). “Peace upon Noah among the worlds.”

(37:109). “Peace upon Abraham.”

(37:120). “Peace upon Moses and Aaron.”

(37:130). “Peace upon Elias.”

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Allah said salaam (peace) to the dwellers of Paradise. See the translation of the following verses.

Surah al-Ahzaab 44:

(33:44). Their greeting the Day they meet Him will be, “Peace.” And He has prepared for them a noble reward.

Surah Yaseen 58:

(36:58). [And] “Peace,” a word from a Merciful Lord.

Surah Ibraheem 23:

(14:23). And those who believed and did righteous deeds will be admitted to gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein by permission of their Lord; and their greeting therein will be, “Peace!”

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Allah made Paradise Salaam (safe and peaceful place) for the righteous believers, and it is safe from death, grief and sadness. It is also safe from any type of stress and oppression. See the translation of the surah Al-An’aam verse 127:

(6:127). For them will be the Home of Peace with their Lord. And He will be their protecting friend because of what they used to do.

Allah also made ‘Salaam’(peace) the word of greeting in this world. So we greet eachother by saying, “As-Salaam-o-alaykum” (Peace be on you all).

There is a hadeeth shareef (its translation is): ‏

Narrated Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! You will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I inform you about a matter which if you do it, then you will love one another? Spread the Salam among each other.”

   (Muslim)       

القدوس, ِالسبوح

Al-Quddoos, Al-Subooh ( read as As-Subooh)


Al-Quddoos means The Holy One and Al-Subooh means The Prais-Worthy. 

Al-Quddoos is mentioned in the Holy Quraan for e.g. in surah al-Hashr verse 23 and surah Al-Jumu’ah verse 1. 
Surah Al-Jumu’ah verse 1 (translation):

(62:1).Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth is exalting Allah, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.


Al-Subooh has come in the Sunnah. Ayishah rAa said that the Messenger salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam used to say in his rakoo and sujood ( bowing and prostration),  “Subboohun Quddoosun, Rabbunaa wa Rabbul Malaa’ikati wa Al-Rooh (read as Ar-Rooh)”.

The Two names confirm that Allah is very high above any defect, and weaknesses. For e.g. Allah is always alive and shall never die, is always awake and never sleeps. Even Allah doesn’t become drowsy. Allah is high above the weakness of needing or having children or wife. Allah cannot be resembled to any creation nor can any creation be resembled to HIM.


The exp. Note No. 37 of the verse 23 of surah Al-Hashr in the Commentary tafheem.net, (“Towards Understanding the Quraan”) gives good explanation of the name Al-Quddoos. It is here in the following:

Exp. note 37

*37 Quddus is a superlative. It means that Allah is far exalted that He should have a fault or defect or demerit: He is the purest Being, no evil can be imagined about Him. Here, one should clearly understand that the attribute of Holiness is a foremost accompaniment of sovereignty. Man’s intellect and nature refuse to believe that a being who is the bearer of sovereignty may be mischievous, ill behaved, ill-natured, who may be characterised with these base qualities from whose power and authority His subjects might be in danger of suffering evil instead of being blessed with good. That is why wherever man thinks sovereignty is centred; he assumes holiness also to be there, even if it is not there, for absolute sovereignty is inconceivable without holiness. But obviously, there is no real Sovereign except Allah, nor can there be.  Allah is the only real Sovereign and Allah is Al-Quddoos (The Holy One). Whether it is monarchy, or sovereignty of the people, or dictatorship of the socialist system, or some other form of human rule in any case holiness for it is inconceivable.  

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Verse 23 of surah Al-Hashr has a few beautiful names of Allah Almighty which are explained in the Tafheemul-Quraan. The verse and its English translation are here:

هُوَ اللّٰهُ الَّذِىۡ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ​ۚ اَلۡمَلِكُ الۡقُدُّوۡسُ السَّلٰمُ الۡمُؤۡمِنُ الۡمُهَيۡمِنُ الۡعَزِيۡزُ الۡجَـبَّارُ الۡمُتَكَبِّرُ​ؕ سُبۡحٰنَ اللّٰهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُوۡن23)


(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,39 the Giver of security,38 the Overseer,40 the Most Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted is He from whatever they associate with Him.
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Also in the surah Al-Baqarah verse 30 Allah said (here is only its translation):

(2:30). And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”

ونحن نسبح بحمد ك ونقدس لك…. …………………………………….           …


(The angels said we celebrate Your praises and sanctify You).

So the angels used to remember, praise and glorify Allah in the above words.

Al-Subooh (As-Subooh) and Al-Quddoos are two very great names of Allah which prove that Allah is high above any defect, demerit or weaknesses, and Allah is safe, secure from any quality opposite to Allah’s attributes. Allah does not need sleep or drowsiness. Allah Ta’ala is safe from having a child or father. Nothing can resemble Him nor does Allah resemble anything or any one.   ليس كمثله شىء  (“There is nothing like unto Him” These words are a part of the eleventh verse of surah Al-Shurah (Ash-Shurah), its translation is):

(42:11). [He is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.

There are two kinds of things/qualities from which Allah is high above, safe and secure.

  1. Allah is high above any of the qualities opposite to His attributes. For e.g. Allah has the absolute qualities of knowledge and power. Allah is high above any forgetfulness or carelessness. Allah neither forgets nor makes mistake. In all of the heavens and the earths nothing is hidden from Him. No particle, small or big, or even microscopic is hidden from Allah All-Mighty God. Allah is high above from having any humbleness , tiredness, disease, or death. So Allah is free and safe from all of those human qualities of weakness. Allah has the Attributes of perfect Justice and Self-Sufficiency. Thus Allah is high above any cruelty or injustice, and doesn’t need anyone for help. Allah has the Attributes of wisdom and mercy. So any qualities opposite to His Attributes are never applicable to Him.
  • Allah is certainly high above any example in His creation and there is no equal or match of Allah. No matter how much a creation or creature is high and great, but is no match of the Creator. Rather the Creator has given them all of the qualities of wisdom, hearing, seeing and strength, understanding etc. It is only All-Mighty God who can make and has made excellent creatures and creations, excellent in all aspects. These excellent creations have no ability or power of its own so they fully depend upon the Creator. Therefore, we must do the tasbeeh (praising) and taqdees (glorifying) of Allah with the words high above any defect or weakness along with the Attributes of Praising and greatness. We must celebrate the praises and glory of Allah with the words that Allah taught us in His Book (the Holy Quraan) and through His Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him). It should not be in the words which are not proper for the honor of Allah otherwise it will become a grievous sin. There is a hadeeth of the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him):

كلمتان خفيفتان على اللسان ، ثقيلتان في الميزان، حبيبتان إلى الرحمن: سبحان الله وبحمده، سبحان الله العظيم

“Two words are light on the tongue, heavy in the balance, beloved to the Merciful: ‘Glory be to Allah and by His praise. Glory be to Allah, the Immense.’” (Bukhari)

Surah Al-Hijar 98:

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ – 15:98 

(15:98). So exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord and be of those who prostrate [to Him].

Surah Al-Saaffat 180—-182 (translation only)

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ -37:180

(37:180). Exalted is your Lord, the Lord of might, above what theyattribute to Him,

 (37:181). وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ –

 (37:181). And peace upon the messengers.

وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ – 37:182

(37:182). And praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds.

Here in these three verses of the surah As-Saaffat Allah Ta’ala told us that Allah is safe and high above the qualities that the unbelievers attribute to Him.Then Allah said salaam on the Messengers to prove that the words of the Prophets for the praising of Allah are absolutely true and correct, and are safe from mistake.

Tasbeeh and Taqdees of Allah is the prayer of all creatures /creation as Allah told us in the surah Al-Israa 44 (its translation is):

(17:44). The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [ Allah ] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving.

According to a hadeeth shareef reported in Al-Bukhari and Imaam Ahmad, “if on one side of a balance the seven heavens and the seven earths are placed and on the other side the words  لا إلاه إلا الله(Laa ilaha illa-Allaho) are placed, the side with لا إلاه إلا الله will be heavier. (Please see the full hadeeth with its translation.)

May Allah make us from those who believe in the beautiful names and Attributes of Allah and celebrate His praises, those that are truthful about the Tawheed of Allah and His Greatness. Surely Allah answers our prayers and gives sustenance to every creature by His rememberance.


الملك و المليك

Al-Malik and Al-Maleek

(The Sovereign; and The Owner)

It means that Allah All-Mighty is The King, The Sovereign; and The Owner and Possessor of all man-kind as well as of all of the creation.

Both of these beautiful names have come in the Holy Qur’aan. The name Al-Malik can be seen in the following verses of surah Al-Hashar and Al-Mu’minoon. 

Al-Hashar 23:


هو الله لذي لا الاه الا هو الملك القدوس …..


سورة المؤمنون 116 : فتعالى الله الملك الحق …


The English translation of these verses is:

Al-Hashar 23:

He is Allah , other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him.


Al-Mu’minoon 116:

116. So exalted is Allah , the Sovereign, the Truth; there is no deity except Him, Lord of the Noble Throne.

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Al-Maleek occurs in verse 55 of Surah Al-Qamar:


إن المتقين في جنت ونهر . في مقعد صد ق عند مليك مقتدر. 

54. Indeed, the righteous will be among gardens and rivers,

55. In a seat of honor near a Sovereign, Perfect in Ability.


It also means that Allah is the King / the Sovereign of the entire universe and not of a particular region or of a specific country. HIS Sovereignty and Rule comprehends the whole universe and creation. Allah is the Owner of all treasures in the Heavens and the earth and those in between them. These two names prove that Allah Almighty is the Owner of everyone and everything and Allah can use the things and the creation in any way that HE wills. Also, it is true that all depend upon Allah for every necessity. So they cannot become independent of Allah. We all are Allah’s servants, no one can escape HIS possession nor can anyone live without HIS help and blessings. 


Allah said in Al-Zukhruf 85 (translation only): 

85. And blessed is He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all between them: with Him is the Knowledge of the Hour (of Judgment): and to Him shall ye be brought back.


Surah Faatir 13—14 (translation only):

(35:13). He causes the night to enter the day, and He causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon – each running [its course] for a specified term. That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs sovereignty. And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.

(35:14). If you invoke them, they do not hear your supplication; and if they heard, they would not respond to you. And on the Day of Resurrection they will deny your association. And none can inform you like [one] Acquainted [with all matters].

And in Surah Faatir 15-17 (translation only):

15. O mankind, you are those in need of Allah , while Allah is the Free of need, the Praiseworthy.

16. If He wills, He can do away with you and bring forth a new creation.

17. And that is for Allah not difficult.
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And in Al-Ankaboot 60 (translation only):

60. And so many a moving (living) creature there is, that carries not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. 
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Some examples of the quality of Malikiyyah (Ownership) of Allah can be described in the following fields. ( this is according to the understanding of the Muslim scholars in the Holy Quraan and the Sunnah, otherwise the vast Malikiyyah of Allah All-Mighty is beyond the scope of human knowledge): 


Ahkaam Al-Qadariyyah (the fortune /destiny of the creation),

Ahkaam Al-Shariyyah (all affairs of the religion)

Ahkaam Al- Jaza’iyyah (the recompense) in this world as well as in the Hereafter. 

Allah the Al-Malik has absolute power, Honor, Ability, and Knowledge to comprehend, encompass, and control everything. Allah uses HIS vast Wisdom, Mercy and Justice to carry out HIS plans … Allah has a general command for the upper world (heavens) and the lower world (earth + oceans) etc. as well as for this world and for the Hereafter. 


Allah has HIS fixed plans and does and orders whatever HE wills in HIS Sovereignty. There is no one to stop HIS orders or to turn the things against HIS will. 

Allah said in Surah Aali-Imraan 189 (its English translation is):

189. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Allah has power over all things. 

And in Surah Al-Furqan 25-26 (their English translation is):

25. And

[mention]

the Day when the heaven will split open with [emerging] clouds, and the angels will be sent down in successive descent.

26. The sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty), belonging to the Most Beneficent (Allah), and it will be a hard Day for the disbelievers (those who disbelieve in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism)
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… and in Surah Ghafir 16 (its English translation is):

16. The Day they come forth nothing concerning them will be hidden from Allah . To whom belongs [all] sovereignty this Day? To Allah , the One, the Irresistible. 
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So the scholars described the attribute of Al-Malik as follows: 

Ahkam Al- Qadariyyah)


The life and death of all is ordained by Allah’s Command. When death of someone is ordained by Allah’s Command, no one can prevent it. If Allah ordained, for someone, loss and for another one gain, no one can change it or stop it from happening. Giving honor or humiliation, illness or health, wealth or poverty, high or low status, to some Allah gives sons, to some daughters, to some both and to some no children at all, all of these things are ordained by Allah as HE wills and none else has the power to control these things.


Ahkaam Al-Shariyyah:


For the Commands of religion Allah sent Prophets and Messengers and revealed Divine Books having Laws and Commands. The Prophets and messengers (alayhim salaam) were ordered to guide mankind to live by the Laws and Commands of Allah. So we all must live by the faith and actions ordered by Allah, and abstain from crossing the limits ordained by Him.


Ahkaam Al-Jaza’iyyah:

Allah shall recompense us all, for good and bad deeds, in the Hereafter. Allah also rewards and punishes in this world according to HIS Wisdom but the place for Final Justice and Recompense is the next world in the life Hereafter. 

All of these Commands are according to Allah’s wisdom, knowledge and justice and all are in HIS possession. None has the power to control them. Allah said in surah Al-Anbiyaa 23 (its English translation is):

23. He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned. 
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Ibn. Qayyim said: “The truth about Sovereignty ( Al-Malik) is providing, preventing, honoring and dishonoring, rewarding with good or punishing according to Allah’s pleasure or anger respectively, giving high position ( like to a king ) or taking it away from them. Allah said in surah Aali-Imraan 26-27, (the English translation of these verses is):

26. Say, “O Allah , Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are able to do all things.

27. You cause the night to enter the day, and You cause the day to enter the night; and You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give provision to whom You will without account.”
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And Allah said in surah Al-Rahmaan verses 29 -30, (their English translation is):

29. Whosoever is in the heavens and on earth begs of Him (its needs from Him). Every day He has a matter to bring forth (such as giving honour to some, disgrace to some, life to some, death to some, etc.)!


Another translation of the same verse is:

29. Of Him seeks (its need) every creature in the heavens and on earth: every day in (new) Splendour doth He (shine)! 

30. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny? 
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Allah forgives whom HE wills, gives health to sick and removes his pain, removes grief from and helps the oppressed ones, catches the cruel oppressors, makes beggars rich, will give honor to a low person and will bring down a powerful person, will take away some people and bring others in their place, will give rise and fall to nations and has written and ordained everything in fixed measure so that nothing comes earlier or later than its ordained time. So HE alone is The Malik and Possessor of all. All of HIS ordinances for HIS creation stay within HIS mercy, justice and wisdom; and nothing can go beyond HIS will and power. 

Here is the English translation of a few verses for your understanding:

Surah Faatir 13-14;

13. He merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night are added to the hours of the day), and He merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day are added to the hours of the night). And He has subjected the sun and the moon, each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the thin membrane over the datestone). 

14. If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call, and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad SAW) like Him Who is the All-Knower (of each and everything).

Surah Al-Maa’idah 76 (translation only);

Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind): “How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or to benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower.” 
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الرحيم

Al-Raheem (Ar-Raheem) 

(The Merciful)

This name of Allah also came many times in  the Holy Quraan. Allah said in the following verses:

هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَائِكَتُهُ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۚ وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا – 33:43

(33:43). It is He who confers blessing upon you, and His angels, that He may bring you out from darknesses into the light. And ever is He, to the believers, Merciful. (Al-Ahzaab 43)

Surah Al-Tawbah (At-Tawbah) verse 117:

(9:117). Allah has already forgiven the Prophet and the Muhajireen and the Ansar who followed him in the hour of difficulty after the hearts of a party of them had almost inclined [to doubt], and then He forgave them. Indeed, He was to them Kind and Merciful.

This Quality is that of the Mercy of Allah. Allah is Arhamur-Raahimeen (Allah is the Most Merciful, none has mercy equal to Allah). Allah is the Creator of all mercy as well as the Bestower of all mercy. Allah’s mercy surpassed HIS anger. 

According to a unanimous hadeeth shareef of Muhammad salla Allaho alaihi wa sallam, Allah sent 1/100 part of HIS mercy among Jinn, mankind, all animals and vermins. Due to this mercy they have sympathy and mercy with each other; and a wild animal is merciful to its young ones. And Allah left 99/100 of HIS mercy to use for HIS servants on the Day of Judgment.

 [Unanimous (Bukhaari and Muslim)]. 


In the Hereafter the 99/100 parts of Allah’s mercy shall be only for the Prophets alaihim salaam and for the believers while kafirs/ unbelievers shall be deprived of Allah’s mercy.

Allah said in surah Al-A’raaf 156 (its English translation is):

155. And Moses chose from his people seventy men for Our appointment. And when the earthquake seized them, he said, “My Lord, if You had willed, You could have destroyed them before and me [as well]. Would You destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? This is not but Your trial by which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have mercy upon us; and You are the best of forgivers.


156. And decree for us in this world [that which is] good and [also] in the Hereafter; indeed, we have turned unto You.” [ Allah ] said, “My punishment – I afflict with it whom I will, but My mercy encompasses all things.” So I will decree it [especially] for those who fear Me and give zakah and those who believe in Our verses –

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[In the above two verses, only the last part of the verse 156 (bold) is related with the mercy of Allah Almighty but I had to write complete 2 verses 155 and 156 to give you understanding of the situation.]

From the above principle of Allah regarding HIS mercy, we must understand that although the mercy of Allah is encompassing everything but for mankind, Allah will ordain it only for those who: 

1. Fear Allah and guard themselves against disobedience to HIM,

2. They regularly pay the obligatory charity,

3. They believe in the verses/signs of Allah.



Also to get more mercy of Allah, a Muslim should take guidance from the verses like Al-An’aam 155, Al-Noor 56, Al-A’raaf 56 and many others. The English translation of some of these verses is:

Al-An’aam 155: 


(6:155). And this is a blessed Book (the Quran) which We have sent down, so follow it and fear Allah (i.e. do not disobey His Orders), that you may receive mercy (i.e. saved from the torment of Hell).


Al-A’raaf 56:


(7:56). And do not do mischief on the earth, after it has been set in order, and invoke Him with fear and hope; Surely, Allah’s Mercy is (ever) near unto the good-doers.

Al-Noor 56: 

(24:56). And perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat and obey the Messenger (Muhammad Salla Allaho alayhi wasallam) that you may receive mercy (from Allah).
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This name usually comes in combination with other names for e.g. Ar-Rahmaanir-Raheem (written as Al-Rahmani-Al-Raheem), Al-Barrur-Raheem, Al-Ghafoorur-Raheem (Al-Ghafooru Al-Raheem).

These two names (Al-Rahmaan, Al-Raheem) are the essential part of the verse Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem (written as “Bismi Allahi Al-Rahmaani Al-Raheem).This is the starting verse of all surahs except surah Al-Tawbah (read as At-Tawbah) which is not started with this verse because this verse presents vast Kindness and Mercy of Allah All-Mighty. In the surah Al-Tawbah Allah announced the breaking of peace treaty with the mushrikeen (idolaters), therefore, it was not started with this verse of Mercy and Rahmaaniah. The peace treaty was already broken from the side of the idolaters as they acted against it again and again; and due to that Allah ordered the Final Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) to announce its cancellation.

The verse “Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem” is revealed in the Holy Qur’aan 114 times, 113 times in the beginning of all surahs except surah Al-Tawbah and once inside surah Al-Namal. There it is in the beginning of a letter written by the Prophet Sulaimaan (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) to the queen of Sabaa to invite her to Islam. In fact a bird called Hudhud had informed Sulaimaan alaihi salaam that a queen and her nation worshipped the Sun instead of One God Allah. Then Sulaimaan alaihi salaam wrote the letter to invite her to the worship of One Single God Allah, started it with Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem and sent it to her by the same bird “Hudhud”!!!

Here is an important point to note, i.e. birds and animals know that only One God Allah must be worshipped but most of the human beings know it not, alas!!!

Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem is a kalimah/verse which the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to read in the beginning of every work and we, the Muslims are advised to read the same. Then we will have to do only good, kind and merciful actions because we cannot start doing evil things with this verse/kalimah of mercy. 

الرب The Lord

Al-Rabb (It is written as Al-Rabb but is pronounced as Ar-Rabb)

This beautiful name of Allah is present in some of the collections of the beautiful names of Allah but it has come in the Holy Quraan hundreds of times as is mentioned in the book Fiqh Al-Asmaa’-il-Husna. It is also repeatedly recited in our daily prayers, for e.g. Alhamdu-lillahi Rabbil-aalameen, (surah Al Fatiha 2nd verse)

It means: All praises are due for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. 

Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem,
 (Glorified is my Lord, The Magnificent) It is recited in rakoo’ when we bow down in our prayer.

Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la
 (Glorified is my Lord, The Highest). It is recited in sujood (prostrations).

Allah said in the Holy Quraan in surah AL-Naba (An-Naba)’ verse 37 :

Rabbi-ssamaawaati wal- ardi wa maa bainahumaa-Al-Rahmaan laa yamlikoona minhu khitaabaa

English translation:


The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatsoever is in between them, is the Rahmaan, none can dare to speak with Him (on the Day of Resurrection except after His Leave). 


Qul aghair-Allahi abghi rabban wa huwa Rabbu kulli shai’

Al-An’aam, 164

English translation:

Say: “Shall I seek a lord other than Allah, while He is the Lord of all things?…

Qul inna salaatee wa nusukee wa mahyaaya wa mamaatee lillahi Rabbil-aalameen. Al-An’aam 162

English translation:

Say: “Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds:

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This name Al-Rabb is related with Tawheed-Al-Raboobiyyah which means the absolute oneness of Lord-hood. Allah, Al-Rabb is the only One Lord Who cherishes everyone in unique way.

According to this tawheed we must believe that Allah is the Lord of everyone and everything and there is no Lord other than Allah.

The meaning of Rabb is Al-Malik-al-Mudabbir i.e. The Master, The Sovereign, the One that is the Manager of all affairs of the universe,.

And the Raboobiyyah of Allah on HIS creation means that HE (Allah) is the Only One Who creates them, all are in HIS possession and HE alone manages the affairs of all creation including mankind and Jinn.

The Oneness of Rabb also means to believe that Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala is the One Who gives us life and death, benefits and harms, accepts and answers our du’aa (prayers, supplication), HE is the Provider as well as the Preventer; and HE has power over all HIS creation. In short, HIS is the creation and HIS is the Command as Allah Almighty said in surah Al-A’araaf verse 54:
….. Ala lahul khalqu wal-amr, Tabaarak-Allaho Rabbul-aalameen.

English translation of the complete verse 54 of surah Al-A’araaf:

(7:54). In fact, your Guardian-Lord is Allah alone , Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then firmly established on the throne (of HIS Kingdom); Who makes the night cover the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession; Who created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Note it well: HIS is the creation and HIS the Command (HIS is the Sovereignty). Full of blessings is Allah, the Lord of the worlds!
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Under the Attribute Al-Rabb also comes destiny. Our fortune/luck is all in the hands of that single and unique Lord, “AL-Rabb”. So whatever good or bad befalls us, it happens by Allah Almighty’s Knowledge, Will and Power. Nothing can happen in this universe without Allah’s Will. Therefore, Allah, Al-Rabb has the right to be worshipped and obeyed; and that we must remain humble and grateful to HIM. Du’aa (prayer) request must be done to the One Whose is the creation and Command and we all must fear only HIM.

Allah is Rabbil-Arshil-Azeem, i.e. The Lord and Master of the Great Throne. So Allah Almighty is the real true King and the Law-Giver. Therefore all of us mankind is obligated to follow the rules and regulations given by our Rabb Allah. All chiefs/rulers must implement the Laws that the True Lord Allah has revealed in the Holy Quraan and are explained in the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him). Every Chief must take lesson from the fate of Fir’on (Pharaoh) whose body, along with the bodies of his army, are preserved in the pyramids of Egypt for warning! 

There are two kinds of the Al-Raboobiyyah:

  1. The general and common Al-Rabboobiyyah; This type of cherishing includes all creatures good and bad, believers and unbelievers, rightly guided and astray. They all are provided  sustenance, blessings, management of their affairs, their rise and fall, giving them blessings or preventing  from them, honoring or dishonoring them, relieving their pain and answering the prayers of those in restless condition. See the translation of the surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verse 29:

(55:29) All in the heavens and the earth entreat Him for their needs; a new, mighty task engages Him each day.

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2. The second is the special cherishing of the awliyaa and muttaqeen (God-fearing, righteous practicing believers). The Ar-Rabb helps them to reach high degree of eemaan (faith) and increase in good deeds and worship of Allah, taking them out from the darkness of ignorance into the light of the Islamic knowledge, becoming closer to Allah, making all good easy for them and protecting him/her from all evil. So the aim of the ulul-albaab (the wise) and pious Muslims is to achieve this meaning of the Al-Rabb (Ar-Rabb). They did special training for this purpose and achieved their aim. Then the eemaan (faith) of the servant on the name Ar-Rabb of Allah makes it mandatory to purify his worship to Allah and stand before his Lord with extreme humbleness. Allah said in the surah Al-Anbiyaa 92:

إِنَّ هَٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ – 21:92   

(21:92) Verily this community of yours is a single community, and I am your Lord; so worship Me.

Surah Al-Baqarah verse 21:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ – 2:21

(2:21). O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous.

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As Allah Ta’ala is the Rabb of all worlds so Allah will not leave His muttaqeen servants without enjoining good and forbidding evil to remind mankind their purpose of life that mankind is created only to worship Allah. From among the mankind there are the sa-eedun (lucky, happy), these are those who obeyed and worshipped Allah, and shaqiyyun (the unhappy, miserable), these are the type of people who  disobeyed Allah, their Lord, and followed their lust.

Whoever believes in the Raboo-biyyatillah and is pleased with Allah being the Ar-Rabb, he she is pleased with all the “do and don’t” Commands of Allah. He/she is also thankful for all the blessings and fortune given to them. On the other hand, those not accepting the Commands of do and don’t will in reality, not accept Allah to be their Rabb. In a Hadeeth shareef the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said: “The one who is pleased with Allah to be his Rabb, with Islam to be his Deen and with Muhammad salla Allaho alayhi wa sallam to be the Rasool (Messenger of Allah), he has tasted the (pleasure of) faith.” (Muslim)