Month: October 2019

الأول , الآخر, الظاهر, الباطن

Al-Awwal, Al-Aakhir, Al-Zaahir (pronounced as Az-Zaahir), Al-Baatin

 

Al-Awwal (The First )
Al-Aakhir (The Last )
Al-Zaahir pronounced as Az-Zaahir (The Manifest One, The Evident )
Al-Baatin (The Hidden One)

All of these four names came together in one aayah and that is the verse 3 of surah Al-Hadeed. Its English translation is:

Surah Al-Hadeed 3 (translation only):


(57:3) He is the First and the Last, and the Manifest and the Hidden,3 and He has knowledge of everything
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Exp.note 3 of the surah Al-Hadeed on tafheem.net:

3. That is, when there was nothing, He was, and when there will be nothing, He will be. He is the most Manifest of all the manifests, for whatever manifests itself in the world, does so only by His attributes and His works and His light. And He is the Most Hidden of all the hidden, for not only do the senses fail to perceive Him but the intellect and thought and imagination also cannot attain to His essence and reality. The best commentary in this regard is a supplication of the Prophet (peace be upon him) which Imam Ahmad, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Baihaqi have related on the authority of Abu Hurairah, and Hafiz Abu Yala Mosuli in his Musnad on the authority of Aishah rAa:

Antal Awwal, fa-laisa qablaka shaiin; wa Antal Akhir falaisa ba’ daka shaiin; wa Antal Zahir,fa-laisa fauqaka shai in; wa Antal Batin, fa laisa dunaka shaiin. You alone are the First; none is before You; You alone are the Last: none is after You; You alone are the Manifest; none is above You; You alone are the Hidden: none is more hidden than You.

Here, the question arises: How does this accord with the immortality and eternal life of the dwellers of Paradise and Hell mentioned in the Quran when Allah alone is the Last and Eternal? Its answer has been provided by the Quran itself: Everything is perishable except Allah Himself. (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 88). In other words no creature is immortal in its personal capacity; if a thing exists or continuous to exist, it does so because Allah keeps it so, and can exist only by His letting it exist; otherwise in its own capacity everything is perishable except Allah. Immortality in Heaven and Hell will not be bestowed upon somebody because he is immortal by himself, but because Allah will grant him eternal life. The same is true of the angels, they are not immortal by themselves. When Allah willed they came into existence, and will continue to exist only as long as He wills.

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Al-Qasas 88:


88. And do not invoke with Allah another deity. There is no deity except Him. Everything will be destroyed except His Face. His is the judgement, and to Him you will be returned.
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Also Allah said in the surah Al-Rahmaan (Ar-Rahmaan) verse 26 and 27:


26. Every one upon the earth will perish,

27. And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.

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In the comprehensive meaning of these names comes that The Rabb Tabaarak wa Ta’ala encompasses the whole creation and that encompassing is zammniyyah wa makaaniyyah i.e. space related and time related. So Allah was before everyone and everything and shall exist and remain after the end of everyone and everything. Allah has been present since ever and shall exist for ever. From the beginning to the end of the creation/ universe everything and everyone is in Allah’s control. That is the time related encompassing.

As for the space related encompassing Allah encompasses everything on its open side as well as its hidden aspects. So Allah is upon everything which is manifest and whatever is hidden Allah is more hidden than that. As the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said: “ wa anta Al- Zaahir fa lesa fawqaka she-in wa anta Al-Baatin fa lesa doonaka she-in. So in HIS Appearance Allah is Higher than all, HIS Throne is above the seven heavens and Allah is above the Thrown. At the same time Allah is so much hidden that none of the eyes can see HIM. Although Allah is so much High but is wonderfully near everything and every creature. Allah said in surah Qaaf verse 16:

Surah Qaaf verse 16 (English translation):


16. And indeed We have created man, and We know what his own self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.
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As Allah is Al-Baatin (The Hidden) and is so near to each and every one, no secret of mankind can remain hidden from HIM. HE (Allah) is extremely near every being with HIS Knowledge and Power and knows every state, internal and external of each creature and controls it in the way HE likes!!!

Now when the Scientific developments have happened, some of the scientists dealing with the DNA and genes of mankind were struck with wonder because they found inside the cell nucleus numerous commands for the formation of different types of body proteins!!! They were in a state of fear due to the GREATNESS of the Creator, Who has given such wise Commands to the DNA for great functions like the manufacture of proteins. They admitted and declared that a Great Wise Creator exists and that Evolution theory is false and is without any scientific bases!!!

When a person gets the knowledge of these four names, then he/she must become very humble before the Almighty God (Allah) and must pay thanks to HIM. He /she must worship only Allah and at difficult times must call only Allah. Also he/she must trust Allah because only Allah can fulfill our needs, can help us in our difficult times, and can remove trouble from us; and also because we are on our way to return to Allah and to appear in HIS Court.

These four names of Allah collectively help us to get acquainted about Allah and Allah’s worship. These are also enough to suppress and crush the waswasa (bad ideas from Satans). According to a Hadeeth in the Sunan Abi Da’wood, narrated by Abi Zumeel Samaak bin Al-Waleed; he asked about a bad waswasa in his heart. Ibn Abbaas rAa told him that if he found something in his heart/mind, he should say:

هو الأول و الآخر و الظاهر والباطن, وهو بكل شىئ عليم

(Surah Al-Hadeed verse 3)

Its meaning is:

3. He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Hidden: and He has full knowledge of all things.
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Thus Ibn Abbaas told the solution for waswasa. Waswasah is suppressed and crushed by reciting this verse, we must trust Allah and get rid of waswasah.

المقدم , المؤخر

Al-Muqaddim [The Expediter (He who brings forward)]

 Al-Mu’akhkhir [The Delayer (He who brings backwards)]

 
These two Attributes of Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala came in some authentic ahadeeth of the Final Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him).
Abu Musa Al-Ashari said that the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to make du’aa as:

Allahumm-aghfirlee khatee-atee wa jahlee, Wa israafee fee amree, wa ma anta a’lamu bihee minnee, Allahumm-aghfirlee jiddee wa hazlee, wa khat-ee wa amdee, wa kullu dhalika indee, Allahumm-aghfirlee ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu, wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu, wa ma anta a’lamu bihee minnee, anta Al-Muqaddim wa anta Al-Mu-akhkhir, wa anta ala kulli shey-in Qadeer.
(Al-Bukhaari wa Muslim)

ورد في الحديث الصحيح، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه كان يدعو بين التشهد والتسليم
ويقول: ((اللهم اغفر لي ما قدمت، وما أخرت وما أسررت، وما أعلنت، وما أسرفت، وما أنت أعلم به مني. أنت المقدم وأنت المؤخر لا إله إلا أنت))

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) , while praying tahajjad used to say the following du’aa

اللهم لك الحمد أنت قيم السموات والأرض و من فيهن و لك الحمد انت ملك السموات والارض ومن فيهن و لك الحمد وانت رب السموات والارض ومن فيهن, و لك الحمد و انت نور السموات والارض و من فيهن انت الحق و قولك الحق و وعدك الحق ولقاؤك حق والساعة حق والجنة حق و النار حق والنبيون حق و محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم حق, اللهم لك اسلمت و بك امنت و عليك توكلت وإليك أنبت وبك خاصمت وإليك حاكمت فاغفرلي ما قدمت وما أخرت وما اسررت وما أعلنت أنت المقدم و أنت المؤخر لا إله إلا أنت أو لا إله غيرك

 

These ahadeeth have very important du’aas. Therefore saying these du’aas in Arabic will be very good for you. You can find their translation on the net.

These two attributes of Allah come together and this is only the Power of Allah All-Mighty to expedite or delay whatever HE wills. And these are the proof of the Ability of Allah to establish HIS Commands with HIS Absolute Wisdom! Allah expedites some of the creation and delays others in their persons, their functions and in their qualities!!!

In the universe, some of the creations are made ahead of others in their strength, speed, usefulness etc. Causes and conditions are made former to the results, and all of these are done according to a fixed measure and proportion. Among human beings, concerning the Deen of Islam, the Prophets (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon them) are made to be the foremost. Also some of them are made superior to others about which only Allah knows, we are ordered to abstain from making any difference among them. Also Allah made some of the Muslims higher than others in the rank of righteousness. Some of the Muslims have more knowledge, stronger Faith, better character and other good qualities. All such expediting or delaying is according to the Wisdom and Justice of Allah.

The Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to pray to Allah for the forgiveness of all sins as he (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used to say:

 

“Allahumm-aghfirlee (Ya Allah, may YOU forgive me) ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu (the sins that I did before or later) wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu (and what I did in hidden and that which I did in the open)”. So we also must pray like the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) as He came to teach us by the Command of Allah. The Prophets alaihim salaam used to be very innocent although they were human beings and thus mistakes were possible from them. But the real sinners are we. So we need these du’aas much more. We must hope the Mercy of Allah and should never be hopeless but we must try to protect ourselves from making sins and we shouldn’t feel fearless of the Plans of Allah.

Allah said in surah Al-A’raaf verses 97—:

97. Did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our wrath by night while they were asleep?

98. Or are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them in the daytime while they play?

99. Did they then feel secure against the plan of Allah?- but no one can feel secure from the Plan of Allah, except those (doomed) to ruin!

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القادر, ألمقتدر, القدير

Al- Qaadir, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Qadeer,
(The All-Powerful)

The dictionary meaning of all of them is the All-Powerful. Al-Muqtadir also means the Creator of all power. The other meanings are the Omnipotent, the Sovereign, the Able and the Capable to do everything. All of these three names came in the Holy Quraan, the most frequently coming is Al-Qadeer, then Al-Qaadir and then is the Al-Muqtadir. Some of the verses mentioning these names are the following;

(Only their English translation is given):

Al-Baqarah 284;

(2:284) All that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah. Whether you disclose whatever is in your hearts or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it, and will then forgive whomsoever He wills, and will chastise whomsoever He wills. Allah has power over everything.
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Faatir 44;

(35:44) Have they not journeyed in the earth to behold the end of those who went before them though they were stronger than them in might? Nothing in the heavens nor on earth can frustrate Him in the least. He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.
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Al-An’aam 65;

(6:65) Say: “It is He Who has the power to send forth chastisement upon you from above you, or from beneath your feet, or split you into hostile groups and make some of you taste each others’ violence. Behold, how We set forth Our signs in diverse forms, so that maybe they will understand the Truth”.
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Exp. note 42:

42. God’s punishment can strike in an instant. This is the warning to those who, supposing such punishment to be remote, were growing bolder in their hostility towards the Truth. They could be destroyed in a moment by a hurricane. Just a few earthquake trernors could raze villages and cities to the ground. Likewise, a few spark, of hostility could ultimately wreak such havoc among tribes. nations and countries that bloodshed and lawlessness plague them for years on end. Hence if they are spared punishments for a while that should not drug them to heedlessness and lead them to live in total disregard of distinctions between right and wrong. They should rather be grateful that God had given thern respite and by means of a number of signs He was making it possible for thern to recognize the Truth and foliow it.
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Al-Kahf 45;

45.And put forward to them the example of the life of this world, it is like the water (rain) which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds scatter. And Allah is Able to do everything.
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All of these names prove the Attribute of the power of Allah. Allah is the Absolute Owner of all Power. The presence of the universe and its management are all due to the Power of Allah.

It is the Creative Power of Allah that HE created Adam alaihi salaam from mud and then created Hawa (eve) alaiha salaam from the left rib of Adam alaihi salaam. Then Allah Almighty continued the creation of all mankind by the union of male and female cells. And also Allah the Greatest created Eisa (Jesus) alaihi salaam from a single parent and that was his mother Maryam (Mary) alaiha salaam!

Then Allah has the Power to give us all a new life at the time of Resurrection and pass judgment on all of us.

According to the saying of the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him), Allah, the All-Powerful, had prepared Hell long before the creation of man. So the angels used to weep a lot due to fear that if they made a mistake, they would be punished in Hell. But after the creation of man, the angels understood the purpose of Hell (that it was made to punish mankind and jinn) and they stopped weeping. Allah’s Power is such that Allah when decrees a matter, just says to it “kun” which means “be” and it happens right then and there!!!

According to a Hadeeth shareef narrated by Aanas rAa, the Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said that the hearts of all mankind are between two fingers from the fingers of Allah and Allah turns them (the hearts of mankind) as HE wills. Therefore the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) used very frequently to make du’aa, “Ya Muqallib-al-quloob, thabbit qalbee ala Deenik”.
( Al-Tirmidhee and Ibn. Maajah),
This du’aa means, “O the Turner of hearts, keep my heart strong on your Deen (Islam)”.

 

Thus according to this Hadeeth Shareef, Allah Almighty will guide a heart or let it go astray as HE wills but the Will of Allah depends upon Allah’s vast knowledge and wisdom. Therefore, we must also make the same du’aa.

Also this is due to the Power of Allah that no one can encompass some thing from the Knowledge of Allah. If Allah wills, HE gives knowledge to whomever HE wills.

Allah created the heavens and the earth in six days and didn’t become tired!!! No one can humble Allah while everyone is in the control of Allah. None of the numerous eyes can see Allah while Allah can see each eye and each look along with the intention of the servant behind his looks. Anything that Allah wants shall happen and what Allah doesn’t want shall not happen.

Our destiny is also due to the Power of Allah. We must believe in destiny that the good and evil thereof is from Allah. If a person believes in Allah but does not believe in destiny then his faith is not perfect (he is like unbeliever). Belief in Destiny is one of the articles of the Faith of Islam.

Allah the All-Mighty said:

Surah Al-Qamar 49 (English translation):

49. Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation, as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz).
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Another translation of the same verse:

49. Indeed, all things We created with predestination.
3rd translation of the same verse:

49. Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure.
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Al-Ahzaab 38:

38. There is no blame on the Prophet (SAW) in that which Allah has obligated upon him. That has been Allah’s Way with those who have passed away of (the Prophets of) old. And the Command of Allah is a decree determined.
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Al-Furqaan 2:

2. He to whom belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth: He has chosen no son nor has He any partner in His Sovereignty. He created all things, and ordered them in due proportions.
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We must fear Allah the All-Powerful because we have no way to escape Allah’s Justice and Allah’s Justice shall take people to Hell.

 

الصمد

Al-Samad pronounced as

 As-Samad

 (The Absolute Master and Refuge for all, The Self-Sufficient)

The Following explanation of Al-Samad (As-Samad) is from the commentary of surah Al-Ikhlaas in Tafheemul-Quraan. The translation of surah Al-Ikhlaas:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ 

قُلۡ هُوَ اللّٰهُ اَحَدٌ​ ۚ

اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ​َ

لَمۡ يَلِدۡ ۙ وَلَمۡ يُوۡلَدۡ ۙ‏ 

وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَّهٗ كُفُوًا اَحَدٌ‏


Translation


(112:1) Say:1 “He is Allah,2 the One and Unique;3

(112:2) Allah, Who is in need of none and of Whom all are in need;4

(112:3) He neither begot any nor was He begotten,5

(112:4) and none is comparable to Him.”6
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Explanation of the Attribute “As-Samad” from Tafheemul-Quraan:

Exp. note 4:

4. The word used in the original is samad of which the root is smd. A look at the derivatives in Arabic from this root will show how comprehensive and vast this word is in meaning. (Lexical discussion of the meanings of the derivatives is omitted).

On the basis of these lexical meanings the explanations of the word as-Samad in the verse Allah-us-Samad, which have been reported from the companions, their immediate successors and the later scholars are given below:

Ali, Ikrimah and Kab Ahbar: Samad is he who has no superior.

Abdullah bin Masud, Abdullah bin Abbas and Abu Wail Shaqiq bin Salamah: The chieftain whose chieftaincy is perfect and of the most extraordinary kind.

Another view of Ibn Abbas: Samad is he to whom the people turn when afflicted with a calamity. Still another view of his: The chieftain who in his chieftaincy, in his nobility and glory, in his clemency and forbearance, in his knowledge and wisdom is perfect.

Abu Hurairah: He who is independent of all and all others are dependent upon him.

Other views of Ikrimah: He from whom nothing ever has come out, nor normally comes out, who neither eats nor drinks. Views containing the same meaning have been related from Shabi and Muhammad bin Kab al-Kurazi also.

Suddi: The one to whom the people turn for obtaining the things they need and for help in hardships.

Saeed bin Jubair: He who is perfect in all his attributes and works.

Rabi bin Jubair: He who is immune from every calamity.

Muqatil bin Hayyan: He who is faultless.

Ibn Kaysan: He who is exclusive in His attributes.

Hasan Basri and Qatadah: He who is ever-living and immortal. Similar views have been related from Mujahid, Mamar and Murrat alHamadani also.

Murrat al-Hamadani’s another view is: He who decides whatever He wills and does whatever He wills, without there being anyone to revise his judgment and decision.

Ibrahim Nakhai: He to whom the people turn for fulfillment of their desires.

Abu Bakr al-Anbari: There is no difference of opinion among the lexicographers that samad is the chief who has no superior and to whom the people turn for fulfillment of their desires and needs and in connection with other affairs. Similar to this is the view of Az-Zajjaj, who says Samad is He in whom leadership has been perfected, and to whom one turns for fulfillment of his needs and desires.

Now, let us consider why Allahu-Ahad has been said in the first sentence and why Allah-us-Samad in this sentence. About the word ahad we have explained above that it is exclusively used for Allah, and for none else. That is why it has been used as ahad, in the indefinite sense. But since the word samad is used for creatures also, Allah-us-Samad has been said instead of Allah Samad, which signifies that real and true Samad is Allah alone. If a creature is samad in one sense, it may not be samad in some other sense, for it is mortal, not immortal; it is analyzable and divisible, is compound, its parts can scatter away any time; some creatures are dependent upon it, and upon others it is dependent; its chieftaincy is relative and not absolute; it is superior to certain things and certain other things are superior to it; it can fulfill some desires of some creatures but it is not in the power of any creature to fulfill all the desires of all the creatures, On the contrary, Allah is perfect in His attributes of Samad in every respect; the whole world is dependent upon Him in its needs, but He is not dependent upon anyone; everything in the world turns to Him, consciously or unconsciously, for its survival and for fulfillment of the needs of everyone; He is Immortal and Ever-living; He sustains others and is not sustained by anyone; He is Single and Unique, not compound so as to be analyzable and divisible; His sovereignty prevails over entire universe and He is Supreme in every sense. Therefore, He is not only Samad but As-Samad, i.e. the Only and One Being Who is wholly and perfectly qualified with the attribute of samad in the true sense.

Then, since He is As-Samad, it is necessary that He should be Unique, One and Only, for such a being can only be One, which is not dependent upon anyone and upon whom everyone else is dependent; two or more beings cannot be self-sufficient and fulfillers of the needs of all. Furthermore, His being As-samad also requires that He alone should be the Deity, none else, for no sensible person would worship and serve the one who had no power and authority to fulfill the needs of others.