(read as As-Salaam):
This name of Allah Ta’ala came in the verse 23 of the surah Al-Hashr. Its translation with the explanation is here:
(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,38 the Giver of security,39 the Overseer,40 the Most Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted is He from whatever they associate with Him.
Exp-note 38: This is the explanation of the name Al-Salaam (As-Salaam)
38. The word As-Salaam as used in the original means peace and secure, Allah’s being called As-Salaam means that He is peace and safety personified. He is far exalted that some calamity or weakness or defect should befall Him, or His Perfection should suffer a decline or blemish.
The details of this name are:
The meaning of Al-Salaam (As-Salaam) includes safety and security from all types of defects in person, attributes and actions. So Allah Jalla wa Aa’la is truly safe from all points of view. Allah, in person, is perfect safety and peace, and no defect or evil can touch Him. All His Attributes are high above any defect. His Actions are perfectly safe from any type of defect, evil or harm. That is none of His actions happens without wisdom. He Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala is safe and clean from the company of a spouse or a child, is safe from having any like of Him, and is Safe and clean from any associate or partner.
This name (As-Salaam) is applied in all of the Attributes of Allah. Thus every attribute of Allah is Salaam i.e. safe and secure from having any defect. Haafiz ibn Al-Qayyim rahamhullah said in his explanation of this great name: If you think and observe the greatness of this attribute of Allah, you will find every attribute salaaman (safe and secure) from the opposite qualities. So Allah is Al-Hayyi (Living) and Allah’s Life is Salaaman (safe ) from death, drowsiness and sleep. His Supporting and His application of power are all safe and free from any tiredness. His Knowledge is safe from ignorance, mistake and forgetfulness. Moreover Allah doesn’t need to think or remember. His intention is safe (Salaam) from getting out of wisdom or going away from benefitting and reforming. His Words are safe and clean from any falsehood or injustice. Rather Allah’s Words are “Tammat kalimatihi sidqanwwa adla” . Allah said in the verse 115 of the surah Al-An’aam, its translation is:
(6:115). And the word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can alter His words, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
Allah’s Self-Sufficiency is Salaam from any need or dependence upon others. Rather all others depend upon Allah for their needs and safety and Allah is absolutely Self-Sufficient.
His kingdom is safe from any dispute or conflicts etc. that means there is no equal king to fight or dispute or make conflict or clash against Allah in Allah’s kingdom. It is also Salaam from having any helper or any intercessor without His permission. His God-hood is safe and high above having any associate or partner. His forbearing, patience and forgiving are safe (salaam) from any need or weakness. So when Allah forbears, shows patience to His servants and even forgives their sins, that is not because Allah is weak or needs something from them. Rather it is due to Allah All-Mighty’s favor, kindness and generosity towards His servants. Thus Allah gives time to His servants, doesn’t punish them at once and if they repent, will forgive their sins.
Allah’s Anger, Revenge and Punishment, and His speedy chastisement are salaam in the meaning that it is not due to cruelty, hard-heartedness or injustice but is fully based on Hikmah (Wisdom) and Justice. So Allah’s punishment also deserves to praise Him like His Forgiving deserves to praise Him. This is because if Allah leaves a cruel transgressor free and unchecked by punishment then the others will be in trouble and their life will become hard for them. Thus it is against wisdom and justice to leave the cruels free for transgression and corruption in the land of Allah where everyone has the right to live in peace and safety.
Allah’s making fortune is also salaam i.e. safe from any injustice, it is with full hikmah (wisdom). Allah’s Deen (religion) and Laws are all Salaam i.e. the entire Islaamic system is peace, safety and security because there is no defect or conflict between the Commands of Allah and the human nature. None of Allah’s Commands puts burdon on man that he/she cannot bear. All of the Islamic Commands are full of mercy and grace, and are based on wisdom and justice. These Commands are for the welfare and benefit of mankind here and in the here-after. Similarly, Allah’s bestowing blessings on the servants is salaam from any need for a substitute etc. Allah doesn’t owe to people any thing nor He needs anything from them. Thus it is only the kindness of Allah that He bestows blessings on people. And when Allah stops blessings from a person then it is also salaam from any greed or fear of destitution. So Allah’s stopping blessings from someone is purely based on justice and wisdom and is not due to greediness or poverty.
In short, Allah is Salaam in His all attributes. Truly Allah is a very Unique Being, so we cannot imagin or describe His attributes in full. We understand a lot from Allah’s creation which is before our eyes. But at the same time there are lots more which are hidden from our eyes or are beyond our understanding. Allah’s one name is Az-Zaahir (written as Al-Zaahir) it means the Manifest One. The other and opposite name is Al-Baatin (The Hidden One). Allah is Zaahir i.e. Manifest because of Allah’s great creative Power. So we can see the greatness of All-Mighty God by looking at the surrounding excellent universe. But at the same time Allah is hidden from our eyes, We cannot see the Great Great Being, our Creator, although Allah is so near to us! Allah is As-Salaam and Al-Ghaniyyun-Hameed (Self Sufficient and Praiseworthy).
Allah’s seeing and hearing are also salaam from similarity with that of the creation. The seeing and hearing of the creation cannot be compared to that of Allah. Allah sees and hears all what is inside all hearts and all cells, nuclei and genes etc. Allah sees and hears each and everything at one and the same time. Nothing is hidden from Allah in the darkness of the night, in the depth of the oceans and even inside and under the earth.
Allah’s making someone friend is also salaam (safe) from any weakness. Allah made the Prophets and pious Muslims His friends but it was due to kindness and good of Allah and not due to any type of weakness or need. Allah said in the verse 111 of the surah Al-Israa:
Surah Al-Israa verse 111 (translation only);
(17:111) And say: “All praise be to Allah Who has neither taken to Himself a son, nor has He any partner in His kingdom, nor does He need any protecting friend, out of weakness”. So glorify Him in a manner worthy of His glory.
The evidence of this great name of Allah Ta’ala is that Allah is the Lord of peace, Safety and security. Look at the management of that Lord and think about it. Generally, this earth is made full of peace and safety for the creation. The Sun, the moon, the stars and the cycle of the day and night are all made safe and beneficial to the creatures. Allah said salaam to His Prophets as can be seen in the following verses of the Holy Quraan.
Surah Al-Naml (An-Naml) verse 59:
(27:59). Say, [O Muhammad], “Praise be to Allah, and peace upon His servants whom He has chosen. Is Allah better or what they associate with Him?”
Surah Al-Saffaat (As-Saffaat) 79, 109, 120, 130 (their translation only):
(37:79). “Peace upon Noah among the worlds.”
(37:109). “Peace upon Abraham.”
(37:120). “Peace upon Moses and Aaron.”
(37:130). “Peace upon Elias.”
Allah said salaam (peace) to the dwellers of Paradise. See the translation of the following verses.
Surah al-Ahzaab 44:
(33:44). Their greeting the Day they meet Him will be, “Peace.” And He has prepared for them a noble reward.
Surah Yaseen 58:
(36:58). [And] “Peace,” a word from a Merciful Lord.
Surah Ibraheem 23:
(14:23). And those who believed and did righteous deeds will be admitted to gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein by permission of their Lord; and their greeting therein will be, “Peace!”
Allah made Paradise Salaam (safe and peaceful place) for the righteous believers, and it is safe from death, grief and sadness. It is also safe from any type of stress and oppression. See the translation of the surah Al-An’aam verse 127:
(6:127). For them will be the Home of Peace with their Lord. And He will be their protecting friend because of what they used to do.
Allah also made ‘Salaam’(peace) the word of greeting in this world. So we greet eachother by saying, “As-Salaam-o-alaykum” (Peace be on you all).
There is a hadeeth shareef (its translation is):
Narrated Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! You will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I inform you about a matter which if you do it, then you will love one another? Spread the Salam among each other.”