Al-Quddoos, Al-Subooh ( read as As-Subooh)
Al-Quddoos means The Holy One and Al-Subooh means The Prais-Worthy.
Al-Quddoos is mentioned in the Holy Quraan for e.g. in surah al-Hashr verse 23 and surah Al-Jumu’ah verse 1.
Surah Al-Jumu’ah verse 1 (translation):
(62:1).Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth is exalting Allah, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
Al-Subooh has come in the Sunnah. Ayishah rAa said that the Messenger salla
Allaho alaihi wa sallam used to say in his rakoo and sujood ( bowing and
prostration), “Subboohun Quddoosun,
Rabbunaa wa Rabbul Malaa’ikati wa Al-Rooh (read as Ar-Rooh)”.
Two names confirm that Allah is very high above any defect, and weaknesses. For
e.g. Allah is always alive and shall never die, is always awake and never
sleeps. Even Allah doesn’t become drowsy. Allah is high above the weakness of
needing or having children or wife. Allah cannot be resembled to any creation
nor can any creation be resembled to HIM.
exp. Note No. 37 of the verse 23 of surah Al-Hashr in the Commentary
tafheem.net, (“Towards Understanding the Quraan”) gives good explanation of the
name Al-Quddoos. It is here in the following:
Exp. note 37
*37 Quddus is a superlative. It means that Allah is far exalted that He should have a fault or defect or demerit: He is the purest Being, no evil can be imagined about Him. Here, one should clearly understand that the attribute of Holiness is a foremost accompaniment of sovereignty. Man’s intellect and nature refuse to believe that a being who is the bearer of sovereignty may be mischievous, ill behaved, ill-natured, who may be characterised with these base qualities from whose power and authority His subjects might be in danger of suffering evil instead of being blessed with good. That is why wherever man thinks sovereignty is centred; he assumes holiness also to be there, even if it is not there, for absolute sovereignty is inconceivable without holiness. But obviously, there is no real Sovereign except Allah, nor can there be. Allah is the only real Sovereign and Allah is Al-Quddoos (The Holy One). Whether it is monarchy, or sovereignty of the people, or dictatorship of the socialist system, or some other form of human rule in any case holiness for it is inconceivable.
Verse 23 of surah Al-Hashr has a few beautiful names of Allah Almighty which are explained in the Tafheemul-Quraan. The verse and its English translation are here:
هُوَ اللّٰهُ الَّذِىۡ
لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَۚ اَلۡمَلِكُ الۡقُدُّوۡسُ السَّلٰمُ الۡمُؤۡمِنُ
الۡمُهَيۡمِنُ الۡعَزِيۡزُ الۡجَـبَّارُ الۡمُتَكَبِّرُؕ سُبۡحٰنَ اللّٰهِ عَمَّا
(59:23) He is Allah: there is no god but He: the
King,36 the Holy,37 the All-Peace,39 the
Giver of security,38 the Overseer,40 the Most
Mighty,41 the Overpowering,42 the All-Great.43 Exalted
is He from whatever they associate with Him.
Also in the surah Al-Baqarah verse 30 Allah said (here is only its translation):
(2:30). And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”
ونحن نسبح بحمد ك ونقدس لك…. ……………………………………. …
(The angels said we celebrate Your praises and sanctify You).
So the angels used to remember, praise and glorify Allah in the above words.
Al-Subooh (As-Subooh) and Al-Quddoos are two very great names of Allah which prove that Allah is high above any defect, demerit or weaknesses, and Allah is safe, secure from any quality opposite to Allah’s attributes. Allah does not need sleep or drowsiness. Allah Ta’ala is safe from having a child or father. Nothing can resemble Him nor does Allah resemble anything or any one. ليس كمثله شىء (“There is nothing like unto Him” These words are a part of the eleventh verse of surah Al-Shurah (Ash-Shurah), its translation is):
(42:11). [He is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.
There are two kinds of things/qualities from which Allah is high above, safe and secure.
- Allah is high above any of the qualities opposite to His attributes. For e.g. Allah has the absolute qualities of knowledge and power. Allah is high above any forgetfulness or carelessness. Allah neither forgets nor makes mistake. In all of the heavens and the earths nothing is hidden from Him. No particle, small or big, or even microscopic is hidden from Allah All-Mighty God. Allah is high above from having any humbleness , tiredness, disease, or death. So Allah is free and safe from all of those human qualities of weakness. Allah has the Attributes of perfect Justice and Self-Sufficiency. Thus Allah is high above any cruelty or injustice, and doesn’t need anyone for help. Allah has the Attributes of wisdom and mercy. So any qualities opposite to His Attributes are never applicable to Him.
- Allah is certainly high above any example in His creation and there is no equal or match of Allah. No matter how much a creation or creature is high and great, but is no match of the Creator. Rather the Creator has given them all of the qualities of wisdom, hearing, seeing and strength, understanding etc. It is only All-Mighty God who can make and has made excellent creatures and creations, excellent in all aspects. These excellent creations have no ability or power of its own so they fully depend upon the Creator. Therefore, we must do the tasbeeh (praising) and taqdees (glorifying) of Allah with the words high above any defect or weakness along with the Attributes of Praising and greatness. We must celebrate the praises and glory of Allah with the words that Allah taught us in His Book (the Holy Quraan) and through His Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him). It should not be in the words which are not proper for the honor of Allah otherwise it will become a grievous sin. There is a hadeeth of the Prophet (Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him):
كلمتان خفيفتان على اللسان ، ثقيلتان في الميزان، حبيبتان إلى الرحمن: سبحان الله وبحمده، سبحان الله العظيم
“Two words are light on the tongue, heavy in the balance, beloved to the Merciful: ‘Glory be to Allah and by His praise. Glory be to Allah, the Immense.’” (Bukhari)
Surah Al-Hijar 98:
فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ – 15:98
(15:98). So exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord and be of those who prostrate [to Him].
Surah Al-Saaffat 180—-182 (translation only)
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ -37:180
(37:180). Exalted is your Lord, the Lord of might, above what theyattribute to Him,
(37:181). وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ –
(37:181). And peace upon the messengers.
وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ – 37:182
(37:182). And praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds.
Here in these three verses of the surah As-Saaffat Allah Ta’ala told us that Allah is safe and high above the qualities that the unbelievers attribute to Him.Then Allah said salaam on the Messengers to prove that the words of the Prophets for the praising of Allah are absolutely true and correct, and are safe from mistake.
Tasbeeh and Taqdees of Allah is the prayer of all creatures /creation as Allah told us in the surah Al-Israa 44 (its translation is):
(17:44). The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [ Allah ] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving.
According to a hadeeth shareef reported in Al-Bukhari and Imaam Ahmad, “if on one side of a balance the seven heavens and the seven earths are placed and on the other side the words لا إلاه إلا الله(Laa ilaha illa-Allaho) are placed, the side with لا إلاه إلا الله will be heavier. (Please see the full hadeeth with its translation.)
May Allah make us from those who believe in the beautiful names and Attributes of Allah and celebrate His praises, those that are truthful about the Tawheed of Allah and His Greatness. Surely Allah answers our prayers and gives sustenance to every creature by His rememberance.